Tuesday, December 31, 2019
NICs have been and continue to be the driving force of globalisation. Discuss. An NIC stands for a Newly Industrialised Country. It is a term used to describe a country that has moved away from an agriculture-based economy and into a more industrialised, urban economy. These countries have a high growth rate. Current NICs include China, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. The average growth rate between these countries is approximately 7.64% compared to the world average of 3.7% (2011). The average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for these NICs is US$10,769 compared to the world average GDP per capita of US$12,000. GDP is a useful indicator of development and a great measure forÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦TNCs dominate industrial production including manufacturing and services, therefore further dividing the gap between the rich and the poor, and being the main leader of globalisation as a consequence. TNCs work to meet the demand for its good from HICs. For example, Toyota, like many other TNCs undertakes much of its manufacturing in LICs in order to meet the high and constant demand from HICs. Manufacturing in LICs is preferred as it provides these large companies with cheap labour. Toyota was recorded as the fifth largest TNC in 2010. It has 51 overseas manufacturing companies in 26 countries and regions, it has Design and Research and Development centres in the USA, Japan, Belgium, the UK, France, Thailand and Australia, and its headquarters are in Japan. Globalisation inevitably increases pressure to liberalise trade and to eliminate tariffs and non-trade barriers. Liberalisation of trade within OPEC clearly resulted in China (an NIC) for example, gaining a comparative advantage over the US (MIC) in the manufacture of machinery products. Globalisation has also been a resulting factor for the dramatic increase in technology. Bangalore, in the Silicon Valley of India is experiencing a remarkable IT boom, that is transforming the prospects of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The internet is the fastest growing tool of communications. It took just 4 years for the internet to reach 50 million years, in contrast to the
Monday, December 23, 2019
Research oriented scholars in the field of social work have been concerned with the inadequacies of the use of research with practitioners (Rubin Parrish, 2007). Social workers have tended to rely on supervisors and authorities for guidance in their practice instead of utilizing research studies (Mullen Bacon, 2004). In recent years, evidence based practiced has been the latest attempt to bridge the gap between practice and research in social work education (Rubin Parrish, 2007). Students of social work education will need to be able to comprehend research articles, analyze their faults, and utilize them in practice. The problem that is examined in this research study is the existence of heterosexism among social work studentsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The last theme that came from the literature review is the rate of heterosexism among social work professionals. The small amount of research that is available on heterosexism is contradictory (Brownlee et al., 2005). One to pic that could have been present through the literature review is the overall attitude and belief that Canadians have towards homosexual relationships. It would be difficult for social workers practicing in Canada to have positive feelings towards homosexuality if their values and government practices re-enforced heterosexism. Another topic that might have been of benefit in the literature review is the prevalence of homosexuality in Canada. Are there a high percentage of gay men and lesbians living in Canada? Are there instances of homophobia among practicing social workers? Are there people who are homosexual that are being discriminated against the helping profession? The authors did make their case for the importance of heterosexism among social work students (Brownlee et al., 2005). These students, upon graduation, will become professionals in the field. They will encounter many forms of diversity, including sexual orientation. Students of social work need to become aw are of their attitudes and beliefs with different types of diversity in order to develop the skills to work with a variety of people. The authors would have made a stronger case for the problem of heterosexism among social work students if they hadShow MoreRelatedHomosexuality : The Issue Of Homosexuality Essay2033 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto live their lives with many mental illnesses and thoughts of feeling alone and like they do not belong in this world. According to Religious Tolerance, Ã¢â¬Å"approximately 1,488 suicides per year are committed by homosexual youth.Ã¢â¬ The discrimination among this minority is still very bad today, but nothing compared to multiple years ago when people used to kill others for being homosexual. The constant discrimination and alienation against the LGBT+ community has caused a large majority to develop mentalRead MoreBlack Lesbian And Gay Families7002 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesleadership on Black social justice issues, this article will demonstrat e the value of Black lesbian gay families towards the larger goal of strengthening all Black families and communities. Keywords: African-American, Marriage Equality, gay, lesbian, youth, family, What is Marriage Equality? Marriage equality is equity in the availability to all Americans, the civil rights and protections afforded by marriage. In contemporary parlance, marriage equality has centered on both the social justice movementRead MoreMaking Sence of Homonegativity10662 Words Ã |Ã 43 PagesDiscrimination toward Gay Men LISA MARGARET JEWELL AND MELANIE ANN MORRISON Downloaded by [University of Technology Sydney] at 08:57 03 May 2013 University of Saskatchewan, Department of Psychology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Homonegativity is a social force that deleteriously affects the lives and well-being of gay men and lesbian women. To date, however, research has shed little light on the reasons and justiÃ¯ ¬ cations heterosexuals may give for engaging in homonegativity. Drawing on a series ofRead MoreLgbt19540 Words Ã |Ã 79 Pagescalled transitioning, is the process of changing the way someones gender is lived publicly and can be a complex process. People who wish to transition often start by expressing their gender identity in situations where they feel safe. They typically work up to living full-time in a different gender, by making gradual changes to their gender expression. Connecting with other transgender people through peer support groups and transgender community organisations is also very helpful for people when they
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Religion might be considered as a means or method of expressing ones belief in and devotion to a being or entity that transcends the human individual. The idea of an American religion is sustainable to a certain degree, as historically the nation has been subject to the developing influence of certain traditional religious groups. However, because of the splintering of religion as well as the desire to keep the nation free from religious tyranny, it has also been apparent that the United States exists without any governing or unifying religious requirement. We will write a custom essay sample on American Religion or any similar topic only for you Order Now Furthermore, if one considers religion to be expressed through belief in and devotion to a particular being, entity, or idea, then the United States might be seen to be populated by a group of persons who devote themselves to several different ideologies, so that no single American religion exists. Yet despite these dissenting views, when one judges by the underlying sentiments of the majority of the nation toward non-Protestant religions, as well as the existence of elected or appointed officials of the Protestant arm of Christianity in governmental positions, it might be said that the overarching religion of the United States is in fact Protestant Christianity. The United States was first populated in the seventeenth century by Pilgrims and Puritans who sought liberation from tyrannical oppression specifically through the freedom to practice their non-conformist Protestant religion (Seelye, 58). These persons sought to build a community based on the religious practices they desired the freedom to perform. The fact that these advocates of the Christian religion were founders of the American nation gives credence to the idea that the American religion is steeped in Christianity. Certainly, the laws that govern the society are based on many laws advocated by the religion. The actions of the American settlers during and subsequent to the time of the Pilgrims also point toward Protestant and Non-Conformist Christianity being the religion of the United States. Expansion was often effected through the missionary efforts of Americans, who acted in the name of Christianity as well as of the United States. Other factors that lead to the idea of Protestantism as being the religion of America are the prevailing fear and distrust of Catholicism that has existed within the country throughout its years (Carty, 11). This fear has been seen in several areas, but is markedly represented in the sentiments surrounding the election to the U. S. presidency of John F. Kennedy (11). This president was known to be a Catholic, and during his candidacy, his affiliation with that religion was widely considered a significant barrier to his election. Father Thurston Davis, editor-in-chief of the Jesuit magazine America, made a telling comment concerning JFK and the religious sentiments of the general American population. He said Kennedy had been found to conduct himself Ã¢â¬Å"more or less as almost any Catholic President might have been expected to conduct himself in a land largely dominated by a strong residual Protestant traditionÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Catholic view,Ã¢â¬ 1962). Other politicians and leaders, such as Eleanor Roosevelt, have been known to oppose American governmental support of Catholic schools (Carty, 69), and this too gives the impression that Protestantism might be considered AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s religion. It is also possible to oppose the idea of Christianity or any other religion as being the religion of the American state. It has been argued that the United States constitution forbids the imposition of religion of any sort upon an individual residing in the country (Young). Therefore, no form of religion should, according to the American constitution, be required in schools, courts, or any other governmentally run or chartered institution. This gives the impression that the United States has no particular religion, as this separation of church and state was mandated in an effort to preserve the practice of all varieties of religion within the country. However, one may still counteract this idea of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s not entertaining Christianity as its state religion when one considers the continued existence of chaplains in Congress and in the military. This points to the existence of a double standard, and hints that although America pretends to be welcoming of all religions and partial to none, a strong undercurrent of devotion to the peculiarly Protestant brand of Christianity still exists within the country. According to John Young in his essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Why Does Congress Still Have a Chaplain,Ã¢â¬ James Madison Ã¢â¬Å"had warned way back when that Catholics and other non-Protestants had virtually no chance of serving in such a capacity. Since then, only two Catholics have been House chaplain. No Jews. No Hindus. No Muslims. No Buddhists. No surprise. Ã¢â¬ Young expresses the idea that since so many Americans are at least nominally or traditionally affiliated to Protestant organizations, the existence of any chaplain in the U. S. Congress would lead to the appointment of mainly the religious representatives of Protestant Christianity to fill that position. Since this has proven to be the case, one might argue that despite opinions to the contrary, the official American religion is in fact Protestant Christianity. The separation of church and state, which is considered to be advocated by the United States Constitution, points toward AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s having no official religion. The fact that prayer and Bible reading is now restricted within schools and other governmental institutions would give the impression that Christianity is certainly not the religion of choice for most Americans. Yet, America was founded by a group of people whose main reason for crossing the Atlantic was to garner the freedom to practice their Protestant religion. Furthermore, the existence of strong anti-Catholic sentiments throughout the country and the continued existence chaplain positions in governmental bodies defies this idea. This points instead to the presence of a deeply Protestant tradition to which most Americans adhere. References Carty, T. A Catholic in the White House? Religion, politics, and John. F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential campaign. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"Catholic view of JFK. Ã¢â¬ Time (in partnership with CNN). 19 January 1962. 29 April 2007. http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,895853,00. html Seelye, John. MemoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Nation: The Place of Plymouth Rock. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Young, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Does Congress Still Have a Chaplain. Ã¢â¬ Sun Networks. December 1999. 29 April 2007. http://www. sunnetworks. net/~ggarman/young. htm How to cite American Religion, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
An analysis of the novel The Street by Ann Petrys: in the African-American naturalistic tradition. This paper examines the Ann Petry novel `The Street.` It describes the story of the female African-American heroines life as a single mother in Harlem. The paper demonstrates Petrys use of her main character to explore the limitation of the American capitalist system, when issues of gender and race are concern. The author writes that the novel is a tragic reality of the sufferings of African-American people in one of the most prosperous capitalist societies of the world. The paper describes how the novel is American naturalistic tradition through the depiction of real life on the streets of Harlem. `Ann Petrys The Street is a story about Lutie Johnson, an intelligent, strong, and beautiful black woman who does her best to raise an eight-year-old son as a single parent, advance in her job, and work her way out of the Harlem streets. We will write a custom essay sample on Ann Petrys The Street or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Petry uses Lutie Johnson as a medium to explore the limitations of the American capitalist system; the role of race and gender in perpetuating violence, poverty and failure; and the societal restrictions that restrict and oppress the female gender, especially black women. `
Friday, November 29, 2019
Research Proposal on Credit Risk Management Essay Credit risk is the natural risk for every lender and borrower and is based on the fact that a borrower will not be able to return the borrowed money or credit. There are many factors which influence risk management and all of them have different background. Evidently, most of the credits are taken by the individuals who want to start their own business, so there is a risk that the future business will not be a successful one and will bankrupt very soon and the borrower will not have the opportunity to return the money at all. There are also cases when the borrower simply does not want to return money, but it is a different problem which touches upon crime and punishment. When the borrower can not pay the money because of the default or bankrupting, the lender has to think about the methods which can help him return the money back. Credit risk has become an important problem, which attracts much attention, no wonder every lender wants to be on the safe side and receive of the money in case of the unpredictable situation with the borrower. There are many companies which play the role of mediators in the relations of lenders and borrowers. They are called factoring companies which guarantee that the borrower pays the whole sum of the credit. Generally, factoring companies guarantee that they would return 90% of the whole sum of payment. There is also another type credit risk management which is connected with insurance. A lender can insure the sum of the money and in case of failure an insurance company pays the whole sum of the money. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Credit Risk Management specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Credit Risk Management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Credit Risk Management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The topic of credit risk management can be called a serious one, because the modern world exists due to credits of different kind and it is natural that the lenders of the credits want to receive their money in case of an unpredictable situation. When a student has decided to research the topic of credit risk management deeply and prepare a research paper on it, he should devote much time to learn about the problem more and complete a successful research proposal which can persuade the professor in the success of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s choice. One is expected to write a detailed successful paper with the logical structure, all the required sections and wise conclusions. The process of research paper writing is a complicated one and students need help of an expert in order to organize their papers correctly. A free example research proposal on credit risk management in banks can become helpful for every student who is in need of writing assistance. It is possible to learn to format and build the structure of the paper correctly just having read a free sample research proposal on credit risk management in the web. At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Credit Risk Management topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!
Monday, November 25, 2019
Sight vs. Insight Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ is a short story written in 1983 by Raymond Carver. The story is an ironic tale told through the eyes of the narrator. The conflict in this story is the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to see past physical appearances. The disability of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s pollutes his understanding of what is important in life. After a visit by his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend Robert, who has no sight but is still a complete man without it because he has an understanding to what is important in life, the narrator is able to reach some sort of insight. The narrator starts his story by announcing the fact that an old friend of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s was on his way over to spend the night. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of this are soon made apparent, by admitting that he is not enthusiastic about the manÃ¢â¬â¢s visit. The fact that he does not know this man and the fact that he is blind bothered the narrator. Ã¢â¬Å"My idea of blindness came from the movies. In the movies, the blind moved slowly and never laughed. Sometimes they were led by seeing-eye dogs. A blind man in my house was not something to look forward toÃ¢â¬ (516). In addition to that he continues and gives the history of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the blind man. It started with his wife, who was single at the time, answered an ad in the paper. The ad was asking for a reader for the blind. She was hired and worked for him all summer. At the end of the summer she agreed to let Robert feel her face. This experience influenced his wife in such a way t hat she wrote a poem about it. The poem was later read to her husband and he recalls not caring much for it. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"I just donÃ¢â¬Ët understand poetryÃ¢â¬ (516). This implies that he does not understand the meaning his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem. After that summer the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife married her high school sweetheart which ended in divorce. Through out this marriage the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and Robert stay in touch by mailing tapes.... Free Essays on Cathederal Free Essays on Cathederal Sight vs. Insight Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ is a short story written in 1983 by Raymond Carver. The story is an ironic tale told through the eyes of the narrator. The conflict in this story is the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to see past physical appearances. The disability of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s pollutes his understanding of what is important in life. After a visit by his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend Robert, who has no sight but is still a complete man without it because he has an understanding to what is important in life, the narrator is able to reach some sort of insight. The narrator starts his story by announcing the fact that an old friend of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s was on his way over to spend the night. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of this are soon made apparent, by admitting that he is not enthusiastic about the manÃ¢â¬â¢s visit. The fact that he does not know this man and the fact that he is blind bothered the narrator. Ã¢â¬Å"My idea of blindness came from the movies. In the movies, the blind moved slowly and never laughed. Sometimes they were led by seeing-eye dogs. A blind man in my house was not something to look forward toÃ¢â¬ (516). In addition to that he continues and gives the history of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the blind man. It started with his wife, who was single at the time, answered an ad in the paper. The ad was asking for a reader for the blind. She was hired and worked for him all summer. At the end of the summer she agreed to let Robert feel her face. This experience influenced his wife in such a way t hat she wrote a poem about it. The poem was later read to her husband and he recalls not caring much for it. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"I just donÃ¢â¬Ët understand poetryÃ¢â¬ (516). This implies that he does not understand the meaning his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem. After that summer the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife married her high school sweetheart which ended in divorce. Through out this marriage the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and Robert stay in touch by mailing tapes....
Friday, November 22, 2019
The risks associated with ionizing radiation in medical imaging practice, and the precaution required to protect against them - Assignment Example However, the shorter wave length, higher frequency waves such as X-rays and gamma rays are used in the medical imaging techniques and can be biologically fatal (WHO, 2011) (Figure 1). Ionizing radiation can be categorized into two forms. The first one is the radiation in the form of EM wave, such as an x-ray or gamma ray and the second one is the radiation in form of particle, such as an alpha or beta particle, neutron, or proton (DeLima Associates 1993, 1-48). X-rays are radiations that are artificially generated using machine. Gamma rays are EM waves that are released from the nucleus of an unsteady atom. The various forms of ionizing radiation have different effect on the biological systems (Holmes, White and Gaffney, 2011). However, these radiations are of great use in the medical science and have contributed significantly in medical imaging practice. This paper highlights the risks linked with the use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging practice and the necessary precaution s that needs to be taken while handling it. Roentgen was the person who discovered X-rays in the year 1895. Since then the use of ionizing radiation in medicine expanded (Holmes, White and Gaffney, 2011). Today, medical science uses both ionizing and non-ionizing radiations in imaging techniques. The ultrasound uses the acoustic pulses for echo-ranging imaging or in case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-waves are combined with high-field magnets to produce images. Both ultrasound and MRI make use of non-ionizing radiations. On the other hand the medical imaging techniques that use ionizing radiation consist of those images produced by the use of x-rays or gamma rays. Both x-rays and gamma rays are high energy, short wave-length EM radiation that can penetrate through almost all tissues. Gamma rays are produced as a result of nuclear decays of radioactive tracers that are introduced into the body and x-rays come from x-ray tube in which high speed electrons are bombarded to a small spot on a tungsten anode target. When radiation passes through the body, it is differentially captivated by tissues. For example, calcium is abundantly present in the body and has a higher atomic weight when compared to hydrogen that forms a major component of tissue water. Therefore, the ionizing radiation is taken up differently in different parts of the tissue. In this process if the tissue atoms are ionized, they become chemically reactive and can cause serious cell damage. Therefore, when these medical imaging techniques are inevitably used precautions need to be taken. One of the most common imaging techniques is the X-rays which is highly useful diagnostically by both computed tomography and film (Yale University School of Medicine 2004). All of us at some point of time have an x-ray examination that aids the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ to diagnose disease or damage in the body structure. In another diagnostic procedure the radionuclides are administered to patients and with t he help of detectors outside the body, the functioning of the organs can be observed. Hence when the physicians need to get an idea of any problem inside the body, they use one of these imaging procedures. In general the radiation doses used in these imaging processes are low. Figure 2 shows the average radiation dose of common radiographic procedures. If we compare the radiation dose that is used in imaging with that used in the treatment of malignant
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Further discussion on last paper - Essay Example Moreover, the aging population was increasing incredibly (Plichta and Laurel 34). The number of trained nurses was also decreasing. In addition, there was the lack of respect from the physicians, which contributed to the shortage. This data is trustworthy as it bases its research because of the evidences that researchers provide from studies they carry out. For instance, Suzanne Gordon notes that women in the nursing sector do not make much gain in their workplaces like their counterparts in other professions (Huston 44). This acts as another reason for the job the job dissatisfaction that nurses encounter at their places of work. Additionally, these researches argue that there was shorting-staffing and restructuring in many nursing organizations that drove many nurses away from the sector. This lead to job burnout and many nurses realized that they could not bear the increasing burnout and professional responsibilities at work. Moreover, there has been an increasing concern on the quality of the services that nurses provide. People link this problem to the nursing shortage (Huston 50). We can trust these findings since the researcher suggests solutions to the problem, which include encouraging people to join the nursing sector. Moreover, the US government encourages nursing schools to enroll more people into the sector so that they curb the problem. However, these researchers provide conflicting points on the nursing shortage. For instance, one research projects a shortage of nurses of 600000 in the US by the year 2020 (Plichta and Laurel 36). This means that the US will need to educate more than 1.5 million new nurses by the 2015, which would help alleviate the problem. This problem can be catastrophic on the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to respond to an event with mass casualty. On the other hand, the American Hospital Association projects a shortage of nurses of 800000 by 2020, which
Monday, November 18, 2019
ECON IP2 - Essay Example The demand for cigarettes are also not as elastic as the demand for laptops since smokers tend to be addicted and therefore the amount of cigarettes they purchase are not as responsive to prices as laptops are. Finally, among the products considered the per unit price of laptops tend to be highest and hence the opportunity cost of the expenditure is highest in case of laptops as well. Therefore, the demand for laptops tends to be substantially more elastic. The importance of elasticity for business primarily is because of its significance in pricing strategies. Price hikes or price cuts do not affect the revenues for goods whose demands are inelastic. Therefore, it is not advisable to reduce prices to try and induce customers into buying products which have inelastic demands. On the other hand customers tend to respond highly to price cuts in case of products that have high price elasticity. Since maximizing revenues is one of the primary targets for businesses, and how price changes affect revenues are dependent upon price elasticity of demand, it is very important for businesses to know the type of demand its product has. An increase in national income would not affect the price elasticity of demand. Although it may lead to rise in overall demands, it will have no impact on the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. Elasticity of supply is simply the responsiveness of quantity supplied to price changes. It is the percentage change in quantity supplied caused by a percentage change in price. The factors that influence the elasticity of supply are: a) Time - since it is not feasible to expand production immediately in response to a price change, although in the long run such expansion is possible, supply tends to be relatively inelastic over the short run and more elastic over the longer run. b) Duration of production Ã¢â¬â typically goods that take longer to produce, such as agricultural output (longer production cycles) tend to have
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Concepts of Masculine and Feminine Sexuality The Issue of Ã¢â¬Å"The UnspeakableÃ¢â¬ In The Theoretical and Fictive Representation of Sexuality Khalil Jetha The unspeakable in the theoretical and fictive representation of sexuality traditionally refers to the weakening of masculinity and the empowerment of feminine sexuality. From a theoretical standpoint, the Ã¢â¬Å"unspeakableÃ¢â¬ is the bending of gender lines, the empowerment of women and the abatement of male dominance. The unspeakable in the fictive representation of sexuality is the destabilization of masculine sexuality and the introduction of femininity in a male psyche. This includes literary methods such as the metaphorical connection of male psyches with the Oedipal Complex, homosexual inclinations and subservience to female characters. Books such as Michel FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s The History of Sexuality examine the theoretical representation of male and female heterosexualityÃ¢â¬â¢s innate connection to homosexuality as the Ã¢â¬Å"unspeakableÃ¢â¬ . The fictive representation of sexuality demonstrates the unspeakable as the switching of traditional gender roles and the appl ication of sexual foils to personalities as present in Nella LarsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Quicksand. Aspects of the unspeakable also translate to racial representation as shown in Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye; in order to understand the difference in sexualityÃ¢â¬â¢s representation in both theoretical and fictive media, one cannot dismiss race as inherently connected to sexuality. Michel Foucault (1926-1984) widely criticized the traditional, Judeo-Christian perception of sexuality as outdated and inaccurate, widely neglecting several aspects of sexuality. The greatest unspeakable in European society was the notion that sexuality existed outside of a procreative dimension. As society evolved, Foucault argued, it was not the proletariat, lower class traditionally viewed as immoral that wrought the several facets of sexuality on the world. Rather, it was societyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"bourgeois or aristocraticÃ¢â¬ families who discovered Ã¢â¬Å"the sexuality of children and adolescents was first problematized [sic], and feminine sexuality medicalized [sic]Ã¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 120). The changing perception of sexuality in EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s upper echelons revealed an unspeakable aspect; namely, that women and children exuded sexual identities independent of the accepted norm of domestication and procreation. The presence of sexuality in women and children lessened the degree of male dominance, hence the Ã¢â¬Å"unspeakableÃ¢â¬ attribute. The male fear of a loss of influence in society was most pronounced in the upper class, the primary reason high societyÃ¢â¬â¢s families were Ã¢â¬Å"the first to be alerted to the potential pathology of sex, the urgent need to keep it under close watch and to devise a rational technology of correctionÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"it was this family that first became a locus for the psychiatrization [sic] of sexÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 120). Patriarchal societyÃ¢â¬â¢s destabilization was the reason sexualityÃ¢â¬â¢s existence in anyone than adult males was so widely reviled. The bourgeois considered sex to be frail, something that ought to be relegated within their society. The bourgeois fear of sexuality outside the male persona branched out, giving way to every unspeakable; more specifically, the unspeakable aspects of sexuality represented theoretically and fictively were based on any threatening idea that would compromise tradition. In what appeared to be a Ã¢â¬Å"struggle against sexuality,Ã¢â¬ society evolved a strategy to take advantage of the sexualities of Ã¢â¬Å"women, children, and menÃ¢â¬ by gearing them toward the familial unit most accepted. Female sexuality, though disturbing the procreative process, was given a voice that aimed sexuality and desire for men to coincide with the nuclear family unit. Juvenile sexuality was exploited, encouraged to blossom because its final realization would be the familial, patriarchal household unit (Foucault 1978, p. 105). In History of Sexuality, Foucault asserts that sexuality Ã¢â¬Å"must not be thought of as a kind of natural given which power tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which knowledge tries gradually to uncoverÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 105). Sexuality develops independent of society, and each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality will evolve differently. Sexuality, Foucault argues, Ã¢â¬Å"is the name that can be given to an historical construct: not a furtive reality that is difficult to grasp, but a great surface network in which the stimulation of bodies, the intensification of pleasures, the incitement to discourse, the formation of special knowledge, the strengthening of controls and resistances, are linked to one another, in accordance with a few major strategies of knowledge and powerÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 105-106). From a modern theoretical standpoint such as that of Foucault, sexuality is represented primarily as a revolutionary social entity. The traditions of a Judeo-Chr istian ethic system would view sexuality as a divisive manifestation, an animal instinct that should be controlled in men and eliminated from women and children. The unspeakable, from a theoretical standpoint, was its mere existence in women and children; any deviance from accepted models resulted in a compromise of male superiority. There were two primary threats: one was the existence of sexuality that deviated from traditional male sexuality, and the second was the existence of empowering sexuality outside of the male contingent of society. Precedence was always given to procreation; sex was meant only to create life, not to be used for pleasure. The threats to male dominance were clear, even in the queering of sexuality. Change is the most prevalent in the realm of the unspeakable, represented in theoretical sexuality as anything deviant from tradition. Despite the spectre caused by multiple future changes to society, Foucault noted that it was Ã¢â¬Å"worth remembering that the first figure to be invested by the deployment of sexuality, one of the first to be Ã¢â¬ËsexualizedÃ¢â¬â¢ was the Ã¢â¬ËidleÃ¢â¬â¢ womanÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 121). The Ã¢â¬Å"idle womanÃ¢â¬ was one given precedence and favour over her counterparts. She retained the domestic role of her predecessors, and was the accepted female figure within society. In her foil emerged the Ã¢â¬Å"nervous woman,Ã¢â¬ the woman afflicted with Ã¢â¬Å"vapoursÃ¢â¬ ; in this figure, the hysterization of woman found its anchorage point (Foucault 1978, p. 121). Theoretically, the unspeakable in female sexuality was that which strayed from the accepted patriarchal model. The Ã¢â¬Å"nervous womanÃ¢â¬ was actually the sexually empowered phenomenon of the alpha female. The problem with a sexually empowered female was the psychological impotence of a man who would fal l under her influence. This psychological rendering is roughly equivalent to the metaphoric neutering of man and society. Contrary to the traditional view previously stated, Foucault agrees that the neutering of the genders is potentially dangerous. However, Foucault recognizes the presence of sex in both genders, and also does not hesitate to divide the two into a gender-based dichotomy. He claims that if society failed to recognize the difference in gendered sexualities, it would create Ã¢â¬Å"sexuality without sex,Ã¢â¬ which effectively amounted to Ã¢â¬Å"castration once againÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 151). He aims to show how Ã¢â¬Å"deployments of power are directly connected to the bodyÃ¢â¬âto bodies, functions, physiological processes, sensations, and pleasuresÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p.152). The representation of the unspeakable here is countered by FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion that the unspeakable is a necessary part of society. In response to the historical construct of sexuality detailing the Ã¢â¬Å"hysterization [sic]Ã¢â¬ of women, Foucault defines the unspeakable of sexuality in thre e ways: Ã¢â¬Å"as that which belongs, par excellence, to men, and hence is lacking in womenÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"at the same time, as that which by itself constitutes a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body, ordering it wholly in terms of the functions of reproduction and keeping it in constant agitation through the effects of that very functionÃ¢â¬ (Foucault 1978, p. 153). Representations of the unspeakable in fictive sexuality can also be attributed to race and gender, as evidenced by Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye as well as Nella LarsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Quicksand. The Bluest EyeÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ encounter with Maureen Peal, a light-skinned black girl whose birth defects were ignored in favour of her fair complexion, demonstrates the phenomena of social racial aesthetics (Morrison 63). Most evident is MaureenÃ¢â¬â¢s denigration of the girls Claudia, Frieda and Pecola; Maureen subconsciously defends her birth defects as beauty because she is Ã¢â¬Å"cute [and they are] black and uglyÃ¢â¬ (Morrison 73). The unspeakable component here is the empowerment of white over black, but upon closer inspection it becomes the sexually empowered girl versus the sexually unwanted others. MaureenÃ¢â¬â¢s birth defects would erstwhile render her unwanted by men and therefore a member of the weaker contingent of society. However, the social standard me rits fair complexion over dark, empowering Maureen over Claudia, Frieda, and Pecola. Despite the fact that Maureen is technically a black girl, her proximity to the white race earns her the contempt of girls whose deep desires to be wanted by society represent the unspeakable. Maureen, though vilified in The Bluest Eye, is the least sexually threatening and exudes the least unspeakable characteristics. It is Claudia, Frieda, and Pecola, who in their desire to be pale and possess Ã¢â¬Å"the bluest eyeÃ¢â¬ aspire to have the power that Maureen flouts in front of them. The white race equates with power and masculinity, while the black race is the powerless neuter in the world Toni Morrison portrays. Similarly, Nella LarsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Quicksand presents the unspeakable in sexuality with the racial and sexual dilemma of Helga Crane. AÃ¢â¬Å" despised mulattoÃ¢â¬ reviled because she could not be confined to a comfortable social norm, Helga embodies the unspeakable ambiguity traditiona l society feared (Larsen 1994, p. 5). Helga represents the same power standard as the white and black races portrayed by Morrison. If power can be ascribed to sexuality and the standard of male strength over female weakness, then Helga therefore presents to society not just a mulatto, but also a woman on the verge of becoming powerful. Larsen establishes this standard, describing such instances as shocking Helga. Helga, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"[shudders] a little as she recalled some of the statements made by that holy white man of God to the black folk sitting [respectfully] before himÃ¢â¬ (Larsen 1994, p. 2). HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s description in Quicksand is sexually favourable, suggesting the duality of a black woman becoming sexually desirable, crossing the borders established by society. HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s attractiveness is described in several colour references, the first description made by the narrator evoking the sentiment that Ã¢â¬Å"an observer would have thought her well fitted to that framing of light and shadeÃ¢â¬ (Larsen 1994, p. 2). Helga is a manifestation of the disconcertment of a woman in a patriarchal society, as she Ã¢â¬Å"could neither conform, nor be happy in her unconformityÃ¢â¬ (Larsen 1994, p. 7). Not only is Helga unable to accept any stance on her race, she is also hard pressed to find acceptance for her sexual power. The same Ã¢â¬Å"parts of her that she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be proud ofÃ¢â¬ ironically Ã¢â¬Å"visualized the discomfort of James VayleÃ¢â¬ in her Ã¢â¬Å"maladjustmentÃ¢â¬ ; she Ã¢â¬Å"had a faint notion that it was behind his ready assent to her sugge stion anent a longer engagement than, originally, they had plannedÃ¢â¬ (Larsen 1994, p. 7). Despite VayleÃ¢â¬â¢s family and their intolerance of HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s familial and racial ambiguity, HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s fiancÃ © represents HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s exertion of power over a man. With such odds mounted against his union to Helga, the logical assumption would be his abandonment of a relationship. However, HelgaÃ¢â¬â¢s identity as a black woman with white features empowers her to be desired by him; James cannot let go as he is dominated and has little choice in the matter. Larsen shows JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ powerlessness, describing him as Ã¢â¬Å"liked and approved ofÃ¢â¬ in the town of Naxos, but Ã¢â¬Å"[loathing] the idea that the girl he was to marry couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t manage to win liking and approval alsoÃ¢â¬ (Larsen 1994, p. 7). Even Helga is cognizant of JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ helplessness, as she knew Ã¢â¬Å"that a something held [James], a something against which he was powerlessÃ¢â¬ (Lar sen 1994, pp. 7-8). The unspeakable factor in sexuality is multi-faceted. While all types of sexuality are different, they are all unspeakable in their common root as threats to heterosexual, male dominance. Theoretical presentation of the unspeakable is largely based on the existence of non-conventional sexualities, while fictive presentations manifest themselves in different media as shown in Morrison and LarsenÃ¢â¬â¢s works. Though the scope of so-called sexual deviance is large, the general premise remains the same. BIBLIOGRAPHY Foucault, Michel. (1978) The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. New York: RandomHouse Books. Larsen, Nella and Deborah E. McDowell (ed). (1994) Quicksand and Passing. NewBrunswick: Rutgers U P. Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Garden for the Blind When designing a garden for the blind one has to adjust the design to fit the needs for the enjoyment of the garden by the blind. Although the blind have lost their sense of sight, their other senses are heightened tremendously. Adjusting to these heightened senses can be a struggle by itself but can prove to be very beneficial and breathtaking in the end. Many advantages and disadvantages come with this design concept. Overall when designing a garden to be enjoyed by the blind one should focus on creating an atmosphere that adheres greatly to the sense of both smell and sound. The overall structure of the garden for the blind will be snake like. Based on the topography of the plot of land being used for this project, a small hill behind Hume hall, a snake like structure will be best in tackling the hills. The snake-like pathway will start at the top and flow from east to west, across the hill while still traveling downward. This will make the drop in elevation gradual. Also, the garden will also be enclosed because birds will be utilized in the project, and it will allow for sunlight to be used efficiently. In the beginning of the garden for the blind the participant will be struck with extreme sound. The sound will not be intense in volume, but intense in the quality and depth. I will house birds that will live near the entrance and have loud chirps. It is not vital the birds be of a particular species; however, being that the mockingbird is the state bird of Florida, mockingbirds will be appropriate. Nightingales also have a distinctive call and will be added. In conjunction with this upheaval of sound, the terrain will be altered in the entrance. I will have either gravel or stepping-stones; this lets the participant know that he or she is entering the garden due to the contrast between the land before the entrance and the entrance. Also this uneven terrain should heighten the senses of the participant. Malnar and Vodvarka in Sensory Design suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"uneven terrain/pathways heighten[s] our awareness of surfaces by obliging us to bring our sensory organs into the bes t alignment to perceive themÃ¢â¬ (104). The flowers that will be present in the entrance will be yellow jasmines and scented geraniums.
Monday, November 11, 2019
ABSTRACT In recent years, there has been a lot of progress in the knowledge area ofÃ project management; however, many companies continue ignoring the techniques and tools that assist the conduct of projects. The project planning phase is considered, by many scholars, a crucial stage for the success completion of a project, especially when it comes to multi-project environments; where managers and team members participate in multiple, concurrent projects. The main objective of this project is to use the many project management techniques and tools to plan a Fitness Festival to educate the Tampa Bay community about the benefits of fitness and health while promoting the sport of CrossFit. PROJECT HISTORY Each year, the United Health Foundation and the American Public Health Association team up to rank the health of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s states. I was surprised to read that Florida was ranked number 33, behind many states like Colorado (ranked 8), and Minnesota (ranked 3). How could a state named Ã¢â¬Å"The Sunshine StateÃ¢â¬ be so low in the rankings? And how could I help change that? Three years ago, I was introduced to CrossFit, and since then, my own health has changed radically. I stopped smoking, started to exercise often, and while learning about nutrition changed the way I eat. It not only changed my lifestyle, but I noticed it started to change my family and friends as well. In educating people around me about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, they became motivated to try it themselves. PROJECT OBJECTIVE The purpose of this project is to create Fitness Festival that can educate the community about the benefits of fitness and health while promoting the sport of CrossFit. Ã¢â¬Å"CrossFit combines aerobic conditioning, Olympic weightlifting, gymnastics along with some other old-school training elements like kettlebell, rope climbs, tire flipping and sledgehammer into daily WODs (workout of the day)Ã¢â¬ (Upton 2013). By using Project Management skills, I will be able to Ã¢â¬Å"provide a vision of what the project is to achieve, communicate the vision to all involved, ensure that everyone stays focused on the vision, motivate all involved, as well as coordinate all tasksÃ necessary to complete the projectÃ¢â¬ (Kleim, 1998). PROJECT SCOPE Ã¢â¬Å"The first step in the planning process was to identify exactly what was to be delivered as well as the major elements of workÃ¢â¬ (Heerkens, 2002). The main goal of the project was to educate the community about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, but we also wanted to focus on promoting CrossFit. We know that CrossFit athletes are very competitive, so what a better way to promote the sport, but to create a friendly competition among Tampa Bay Crossfit athletes? All tasks had to be completed under the approval budget of $1000. DELIVERABLES Ã¢â¬ ¢Finalize Location of Event Ã¢â¬ ¢Develop Competition Workouts Ã¢â¬ ¢Plan Marketing Strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢Inventory of Equipment Ã¢â¬ ¢Obtain Sponsors and/ or Vendors Ã¢â¬ ¢Obtain commitment of Resources/ Volunteers Ã¢â¬ ¢Entertainment MILESTONES Ã¢â¬ ¢Reserve competition location- January 18th 2014 Ã¢â¬ ¢Create event flyers, website and social media- January 31st 2014 Ã¢â¬ ¢Finalize workouts-February 10th 2014 Ã¢â¬ ¢Confirm vendors and volunteers- February 17th 2014 Ã¢â¬ ¢Organize swag bags- February 24th 2014 Ã¢â¬ ¢Host Competition- March 1st 2014 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS Ã¢â¬ ¢Location must accommodate the intended number of athletes and spectator Ã¢â¬ ¢There must be at least 1 judge for every team competing Ã¢â¬ ¢Location must have bathrooms Ã¢â¬ ¢All Athletes must sign a release form ASSUMPTIONS Ã¢â¬ ¢At least 15 athletes will sign up to compete Ã¢â¬ ¢Volunteers will not receive monetary compensation Ã¢â¬ ¢Sponsors and vendors will pay an entry fee LIMITS AND EXCLUSIONS Ã¢â¬ ¢Sponsors and vendors will bring their own tent, table and chairs Ã¢â¬ ¢DJ is responsible for all music equipment including a microphone CUSTOMER REVIEW Taylor Smith and Nicole Smith WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is Ã¢â¬Å"developed by sub-diving a process, product, project, or service into its major work elements, then breaking the major work elements into sub-elementsÃ¢â¬ (Stewart, 1995). The WBS is the Ã¢â¬Å"skeleton and foundation of every project and acts as the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s major support mechanismÃ¢â¬ (Dow, 2010). I have found it to be useful in not only projects, but also in any brainstorming session. It helps team members Ã¢â¬Å"remember all major portions of work to be accomplishedÃ¢â¬ (Stewart, 1995). Creating a focus helps organize the team and therefore, assure that all major deliverables are recognized. The WBS Ã¢â¬Å"graphically displays all the work items for the project in a single chartÃ¢â¬ (Dow, 2010), so it can be used as a helpful communication tool. The WBS is also used to reduce the Ã¢â¬Å"possibility of overlap, duplication and redundancy of tasksÃ¢â¬ (Stewart, 1995). There is a lot of misconception that the WBS is an organizational chart or a schedule. PMs have to be very careful in explaining the function of the WBS as it does not have a sequence and should not be used as the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule. PROJECT NETWORK Ã¢â¬Å"The network diagramÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to sequence and logically order all tasks on a project. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an organization of the project layoutÃ¢â¬ (Dow, 2010). It allows for the PM to know what tasks are being worked on, their duration, when they should start and when they should finish, along with any predecessors and successors. Furthermore, the PM should identify the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s critical path in order to assign the best team members to those tasks, as those tasks are critical to maintain Ã¢â¬Å"cost and schedule savingsÃ¢â¬ (Warburton, 2013). CRITICAL PATH The critical path will assist with maintaining control and keeping the project on schedule. Ã¢â¬Å"The critical path is derived by performing two manipulations of the schedule- a forward pass and a backward pass. The forward pass calculates the earliest times (or dates) that activities can start and finish. The backward pass calculates the latest times (or dates) that activities can start and finishÃ¢â¬ (Heerkens, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"The critical path is the longest path and the shortest time in which a project can be completedÃ¢â¬ (Warburton, 2013). The critical path activities are the ones the PM needs to pay most attention to as Ã¢â¬Å"one day of slippage in a critical path activity means one day of slippage in the overall projectÃ¢â¬ . COST ESTIMATE I started my project with a high level/ macro estimation. I used my experience from a previous In-House competition I planned as the basis for estimating the current competition event I am planningÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"While this method is less costly than other techniques, in most cases it is also less accurateÃ¢â¬ (Hill, 2009). Even though the end deliverable (host a competition) is the same, there are a lot of differences between In-house and a community competition. The scope is much larger, the timeline is greater, a lot more resources are needed, etc. This is why a Bottoms-Up or Micro estimate is a better technique. This type of estimate is Ã¢â¬Å"used when the PM wants to improve the estimate and account for risk and estimation uncertaintyÃ¢â¬ Ã (Heldman, 2013). Unfortunately, this technique is hard to do in the beginning stage of the project because there is not enough information at that time. The best time to use this technique is after the PM finalizes the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). During this technique, the PM will estimate the cost of each activity in the WBS. Ã¢â¬Å"The cost and accuracy are driven by the size of the individual work packages- smaller work packages increase both cost and accuracyÃ¢â¬ (Hill, 2009). Ã¢â¬Å"The calculations used in the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) approach recognize the variability inherent in each activity and applies rudimentary statistics in a way that accommodates the variabilityÃ¢â¬ (Heerkens, 2002). PERT uses three estimates. Ã¢â¬Å"The most likely time is the effort to complete a task under normal or reasonable conditions. The most pessimistic time is the effort to complete a task under the worst conceivable circumstances. The most optimistic is the effort to complete a task under the best or ideal circumstancesÃ¢â¬ (Kleim, 1998). PERT CALCULATION Estimated Cost = Optimistic Estimate + 4* (most likely estimate) + Pessimistic Estimate 6 $800 + 4* ($1,000) + ($1,500) = $1,050 6 EXTERNAL BUDGET This project is not expected to warrant a profit. Its objective is to educate the community about health, nutrition and the sport of CrossFit. Sponsors, including apparel stores, equipment stores, etc. will pay a fee of $250.00 each. The funds will go towards each athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s swag bag (which will include a competition t-shirt). The fee will also be used for the purchase of t-shirts for volunteers and judges. All Vendors, including vitamin stores, sports drinks, and any food vendor will pay a fee of $100.00 each. The fee will be used for the marketing of the competition which will include all vendorsÃ¢â¬â¢ information and advertising. RISKS Ã¢â¬Å"Risk management is a proactive attempt to recognize what can go wrong and to plan aheadÃ¢â¬ (Warburton 2013). Risk reporting is the act of informing team managers and senior management of those risks. RISKSCONSEQUENCES Not enough athletes will sign upPotential cancellation of project Judges/ volunteers donÃ¢â¬â¢t show up on competition dayDelay and over-allocation of resources Athlete does not sign a waiver and gets hurt during competitionLiability to the Sponsor Property damage caused by heavy equipment Cost not in budget EARNED VALUE (EV) The earned value concept consists of examining the past, present, and future in order to determine the end point. IDBaseline EstimateSpent to DateCost to Complete Revised ForecastUnder (Over) 1$1,000$200$600$800$200 1.2$200$200$0$200$0 1.3$100$0$100$100$0 1.4$100$150$0$150($50) 1.5$80$95$0$95($15) TOTAL$1480$645$700$1,345$135 *** Local companies donated money towards the project in return for advertisement, which covered some costs within the planned budget*** RECOMMENDATIONS/ LESSONS LEARNED Even though I understood that the project scope was one of the most important documents, I did not Ã¢â¬Å"invest an appropriate amount of time to fully understand all aspects of the projectÃ¢â¬ (Heerkens, 2002). That caused a lot of wasted time on my part, as I struggled maintaining the timeline and handling over-allocation of resources. During the WBS exercise, I was clueless on what to do, so I kept focusing on Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ to deliver a task andÃ ended up wasting a lot of my teamÃ¢â¬â¢s time. After understanding the purpose of the exercise, I was able to focus on Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬ work was needed to be performed and not Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ to do it. The PM needs to make sure every team member understands the concepts of what each Ã¢â¬Å"exerciseÃ¢â¬ is. Many SMEs, stakeholders, etc. are not familiar with project management skills. When I was working on the network diagram, I realized I made the wrong assumption on the duration of some tasks, and had to adjust those ti mes in order to meet the deadline. That created even more pressure on the, already Ã¢â¬Å"stretched thinÃ¢â¬ resources. I also had to combine some tasks in order to simplify the diagram. The once separated tasks of commitment from Athletes, Sponsors, and Vendors are now combined and have the same duration time. After learning the importance of having the best people assigned to critical activities, I had to shift the assignments of resources and add other volunteers to help with the planning phase of the project. Also, I could have done a better job recognizing changes in the critical path through the ongoing schedule updates. If not done, the Ã¢â¬Å"PM could very well spend time, money, and resources fighting fires that donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily matter (i.e. not in the critical path)Ã¢â¬ . (Heerkens, 2002). Understanding the cost estimate is extremely important as it will drive the project. It took me a long time to understand the concept in relation to my project, as resources were volunteers (not paid) and a lo t of the budget came from fees paid by vendors and sponsors. In hindsight, I would have preferred picking a different type of project- one that I could clearly explain each cost. The biggest frustration and biggest lessons learned came from MS Project. Not being familiar with the application; I struggled completing that assignment. I learned the tool is excellent and hope to use in the near future; however, the PM should not attempt to promise to deliver something without having a basic knowledge of the process or tool being used. I had planned to run the schedule based on a 7 day/ week work schedule; however, could not figure out how to accurately change it in MS Project, so I had to constantly manipulate the tasks and duration to try to fit the timeline. I hope to run the same exercises and use the same tools during the next CrossFit completion I get involved in. I am curious to see how I go about it and see the difference in results. REFERENCES Dow, W. (2010) Project Management Communications Bible, John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Heldman, K. (2013). PMP: Project Management Professional Exam Study Guide. John Wiley & Sons, 2013 Heerkens, G. (2002) Project Management, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002 Hill, G. (2009). The Complete Project Management Methodology and Toolkit. CRC Press, 2009. Kleim, R. and Ludin, I. (1998) Project Management PractitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook, AMACOM Books, 1998. Stewart, D. and Wyskida, R. (1995) Cost EstimatorÃ¢â¬â¢s Reference Manual, John Wiley & Sons, 1995. Upton, J. (2013, May 10). The CrossFit Craze: 5 Reasons You Need to Get In on It. [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/julie-upton/crossfit_b_3240705.html Warburton, R. and Kanabar, V. (2013). The Art and Science of Project Management. RW Press, 2013.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Humour is a key theme in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and Prejudice.Ã¢â¬ It plays a major role in entertaining the reader and providing important characteristics and features of the characters in the novel. Humour is shown in the responses of characters towards one another and the episdary style, which creates humour as it is written from the point of view of the character rather than the style in which the rest of the novel is written in. In chapters 1-20 the reader learns about the character of Mr.Collins. Mr.Bennet's estate brings him two thousand pounds a year, but on his death a distant male relative, Mr.Collins, will inherit both his estate and this income. In chapter 13, Mr.Bennet receives a letter from Mr.Collins in which Mr.Collins informs Mr.Bennet that he will be joining them for dinner. In his letter, Mr.Collins explains that he is a clergyman in the patronage of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, in Hunsford, Kent. He hints a way of resolving the problem of entailment and proposes to visit the family for a week. Jane Austin's use of the letter in chapter 13 is a very clever introduction to the character of Mr.Collins as it gives the reader a brief insight to his character even before the reader meets him. The letter reveals Mr.Collins as a person with an astonishing pomposity. We also learn that he is artificial, haughty, proud and very self-important. Ã¢â¬Å"I flatter myself that my present overtures of good will are highly recommended.Ã¢â¬ The pedantically worded letter reveals Mr.Collins's artificiality. Furthermore, humour is conveyed in Mr.Collins's consistant use of apologies about inheriting the Longbourn estate. Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot be otherwise than concerned at being the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg leave to aplogise for it, as well as to assure you of my readiness to make them every possible amends- but of this hereafter.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 13. This may have seemed very comical to the reader as Mr.Collins feels that his apology will make the Bennets like him. This reinforces how shallow, insincere and single-minded Mr.Collins actually is. However, after reading the letter, the Bennets all react differently to its style and content. These comments and reactions are used to contrast their characters and perceptions. Mrs.Bennet is immediately placated by Mr.Collins's heavy hints, which suggest that he is thinking of marrying one of her girls. This reinforces Mrs.Bennet's shallowness. Jane approves of his good intentions, which reinforces the point that she is naive. However, Elizabeth questions his sense, which shows her Ã¢â¬Å"quicknessÃ¢â¬ . Mary commends his clicheed composition, whereas, Catherine and Lydia are not interested as he is not a soldier. Mr.Bennet meanwhile looks forward to the enjoyment of Mr.Collins's folly. As does the reader. Later on, after his arrival at the Bennets' estate, Mr.Collins is given a tour of the house not merely in general but to view for value, as he will acquire the property in the future. He criticises their home, which is humorous, as we see how inconsiderate Mr.Collins is. He also does not seem to realise how he may be offending the Bennets. Mr.Collins thinks highly of himself. His language is pedantically worded which shows us that he is trying to convey that he is an intellectual person. The character of Mr.Collins can be likened to the character of Mary, as, although they are both intelligent, they are very artificial in the way in which they present their intelligence to an audience. Mr.Collins uses long sentences in the letter, which portray the shallowness of his character. In chapter 20, when Mr.Collins proposes to Elizabeth, his speech is stilted, pompous and governed by the overweening egotism. His prolix style leads him to break down his speech into numbered points: Ã¢â¬Å"FirstlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ secondlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ thirdlyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ These are unsuitable in a proposal of marriage during which love is proclaimed. Elizabeth nearly laughs at the idea that his business plan is to be presented before he allows his feelings to run away on the subject of the companion that he has chosen for his future life. He shows that he has not considered her views or feelings and he is certain that his offer is an act of generosity. The scene is richly comic, but harsh realities underlie the situation. Collins reminds Elizabeth that since she has so little money to her name, she may never receive another offer of marriage, which shows the reader Mr.Collins's selfishness, rudeness and how inconsiderate he is. Humour is also highlighted in Mr.Collins's marriage proposal when Elizabeth refuses to marry him. He is turned down and this comes as a shock to him. When Elizabeth refuses him, he is determined to see her behaviour as a form of modesty or flirtatiousness, Ã¢â¬Å"the usual practice of elegant females.Ã¢â¬ The reader comes across absurdity in the way Mr.Collins describes Lady Catherine de Bourgh. He continuously praises her in his letter and compares her with everything and everyone. He says that she is an Ã¢â¬Å"honourableÃ¢â¬ lady Ã¢â¬Å"whose bounty and beneficence has preferred me to the valuable rectory of his parish, where it shall be my earnest endeavour to demean myself with grateful respect towards her ladyship.Ã¢â¬ His descriptions of Lady Catherine de Bourgh in the letter are very humorous and Mr.Collins's artificiality is reinforced. This is because he is trying to associate himself with people from the upper class, (although we know he is not as he comes from the same working background as Mr.Bennet). Furthermore, in chapter 16, Mr.Collins, intending a compliment, compares the drawing room to the small breakfast parlour at Rosings, Lady Catherine de Bourgh's estate. Mrs.Philips soon realises that he is tedious snob. Finally, humour throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ has been successful. Throughout chapters 1-20 we see the various ways in which humour is portrayed through the character of Mr.Collins. By using Mr.Collins as the centre of comedy in the novel, Jane Austen entertains the reader and brings a smile to their faces.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Rise and Fall of Nazi Officer Franz Stangl Franz Stangl, nicknamed The White Death, was an Austrian Nazi who served as director of the Treblinka and Sobibor death camps in Poland during World War II. Under his co-direction, it is estimated that more than 1 million people were gassed and buried in mass graves. After the war, Stangl fled Europe, first to Syria and then to Brazil. In 1967, he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and extradited to Germany, where he was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died from a heart attack in prison in 1971. Stangl as a Youth Franz Stangl was born in Altmuenster, Austria, on March 26, 1908. As a young man, he worked in textile factories, which would help him find employment later while on the run. He joined two organizations: the Nazi party and the Austrian police. When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, the ambitious young policeman joined the Gestapo and soon impressed his superiors with his cold efficiency and willingness to follow orders. Stangl and Aktion T4 In 1940, Stangl was assigned to Aktion T4, a Nazi program designed to improve the Aryan master race gene pool by weeding out the infirm. Stangl was assigned to the Hartheim Euthanasia Center near Linz, Austria. Germans and Austrian citizens who were deemed unworthy were euthanized, including those born with birth defects, the mentally ill, alcoholics, those with DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome and other illnesses. The prevailing theory was that those with defects were draining the resources from society and polluting the Aryan race. At Hartheim, Stangl proved that he had the proper combination of attention to detail, organizational skill and absolute indifference to the suffering of those he deemed inferior. Aktion T4 was eventually suspended after indignation from German and Austrian citizens. Stangl at Sobibor Death Camp After Germany had invaded Poland, the Nazis had to figure out what to do with the millions of Polish Jews, who were considered subhuman according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany. The Nazis built three death camps in eastern Poland: Sobibor, Treblinka, and Belzec. Stangl was assigned as chief administrator of the Sobibor death camp, which was inaugurated in May 1942. Stangl served as camp director until his transfer in August. Trains carrying Jews from all over Eastern Europe arrived at the camp. Train passengers arrived, were systematically stripped, shaved and sent to the gas chambers to die. It is estimated in the three months that Stangl was at Sobibor, 100,000 Jews died under StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s watch. Stangl at Treblinka Death Camp Sobibor was running very smoothly and efficiently, but the Treblinka death camp was not. Stangl was reassigned to Treblinka to make it more efficient. As the Nazi hierarchy had hoped, Stangl turned the inefficient camp around. When he arrived, he found corpses strewn about, little discipline among the soldiers and inefficient killing methods. He ordered the place cleaned up and made the train station attractive so that incoming Jewish passengers would not realize what was going to happen to them until it was too late. He ordered the construction of new, larger gas chambers and raised the killing capacity of Treblinka to an estimated 22,000 per day. He was so good at his job that he was awarded the honor Ã¢â¬Å"Best Camp Commandant in PolandÃ¢â¬ and awarded the Iron Cross, one of the highest Nazi honors. Stangl Assigned to Italy and Return to Austria Stangl was so efficient at administrating the death camps that he put himself out of work. By the middle of 1943, most of the Jews in Poland were either dead or hiding. The death camps were no longer needed. Anticipating the international outrage to the death camps, the Nazis bulldozed the camps and tried to hide the evidence as best they could. Stangl and other camp leaders like him were sent to the Italian front in 1943; it was hypothesized that it may have been a way to try and kill them off. Stangl survived the battles inÃ Italy and returned to Austria in 1945, where he stayed until the war ended. Flight to Brazil As an SS officer, the genocidal terror squad of the Nazi Party, Stangl attracted the attention of the Allies after the war and spent two years in an American internment camp. The Americans did not seem to realize who he was. When Austria began to show interest in him in 1947, it was due to his involvement in Aktion T4, not for the horrors that took place in Sobibor and Treblinka. He escaped in 1948 and made his way to Rome, where pro-Nazi bishop Alois Hudal helped him and his friend Gustav Wagner escape. Stangl first went to Damascus, Syria, where he easily found work in a textile factory. He prospered and was able to send for his wife and daughters. In 1951, the family moved to Brazil and settled in So Paulo. Turning up the Heat on Stangl Throughout his travels, Stangl did little to hide his identity. He never used an alias and even registered with the Austrian embassy in Brazil. By the early 1960s, although he felt safe in Brazil, it had to have been clear to Stangl that he was a wanted man. Fellow Nazi Adolf Eichmann was snatched off a Buenos Aires street in 1960 before being taken to Israel, tried and executed. In 1963, Gerhard Bohne, another former officer associated with Aktion T4, was indicted in Germany; he would eventually be extradited from Argentina. In 1964, 11 men who had worked for Stangl at Treblinka were tried and convicted. One of them was Kurt Franz, who had succeeded Stangl as commander of the camp.Ã Nazi Hunter Wiesenthal on the Chase Simon Wiesenthal, the well-known concentration camp survivor, and Nazi hunter had a long list of Nazi war criminals heÃ wanted to be broughtÃ to justice, and StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s name was near the top of the list. In 1964, Wiesenthal got a tipÃ that Stangl was living in Brazil and working at a Volkswagen factory in So Paulo. According to Wiesenthal, one of the tips came from a former Gestapo officer, who demanded to be paid one penny for every Jew killed at Treblinka and Sobibor. Wiesenthal estimated that 700,000 Jews had died in those camps, so the total for the tip came to $7,000, payable if and when Stangl was captured. Wiesenthal eventually paid the informant. Another tip to Wiesenthal concerning StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts may have come from StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s former son-in-law. Arrest and Extradition Wiesenthal pressured Germany to issue a request to Brazil for the arrest and extradition of Stangl. On February 28, 1967, the ex-Nazi was arrested in Brazil as he returned from a bar with his adult daughter. In June, Brazilian courts ruled that he should be extradited and shortly thereafter he was put on a plane for West Germany. It took German authorities three years to bring him to trial. He was charged with the deaths of 1.2 million people. Trial and Death StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s trial began on May 13, 1970. The prosecutionÃ¢â¬â¢s case was well-documented and Stangl did not contest most of the accusations. He instead relied on the same line prosecutors had been hearing since the Nuremberg Trials, that he was only Ã¢â¬Å"following orders.Ã¢â¬ He was convicted on December 22, 1970, of complicity in the deaths of 900,000 people and sentenced to life in prison. He died of a heart attack in prison on June 28, 1971, about six months after his conviction. Before he died, he gave a long interview to Austrian writer Gitta Sereny. The interview sheds some light on how Stangl was able to commit the atrocities he did. He repeatedly said that his conscience was clear because he had come to see the endless train cars of Jews as nothing more than cargo. He said he did not hate Jews personally but was proud of the organizational work he had done in the camps. In the same interview, he mentioned that his former colleague Gustav Wagner was hiding in Brazil. Later, Wiesenthal would track Wagner down and have him arrested, but the Brazilian government never extradited him.Ã Unlike some of the other Nazis, Stangl did not appear to relish the killing he oversaw. There are no accounts of him ever murdering anyone personally like fellow camp commander Josef Schwammberger or Auschwitz Ã¢â¬Å"Angel of DeathÃ¢â¬ Josef Mengele. He wore a whip while at the camps, which he apparently seldom used it, although there were very few eyewitnesses who survived the Sobibor and Treblinka camps to verify it. There is no doubt, however, that StanglÃ¢â¬â¢s institutionalized slaughter ended the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. Wiesenthal claimed to have brought 1,100 former Nazis to justice. Stangl was by far the Ã¢â¬Å"biggest fishÃ¢â¬ that the famous Nazi hunter ever caught. Sources Simon Wiesenthal Archive. Franz Stangl. Walters, Guy. Hunting Evil: the Nazi War Criminals Who Escaped and the Quest to Bring them to Justice. 2010: Broadway Books.
Monday, November 4, 2019
California Oil Spill Sparks State of Emergency - Term Paper Example Oil spillages such as the BP Mexico Gulf catastrophe have normally been caused by unpredicted engineering failures. However, most of the failures have been attributed to unethical operations by the management of the responsible companies. Significant amounts of money were spent on disaster mitigation and response including compensations for loss of lives, financing cleanups and reconstruction of the damaged property (On-site clean-up of oil spillage, 2013). That solely focused on the California Oil Spillage that even sparked the State of Emergency. The State government of California parted allocated financial and other resources towards the management of the crisis. The paper explores the dangers posed by the threat and destruction that emanated from its occurrence. Engineering and ethical issues emanating from the disaster are discussed and the actual causes that might have resulted in its occurrence. Besides presenting an evaluation of the issues, the construct of this paper also e xplores the engineering efforts that were applied during the crisis to help prevent and reduce the adverse effects of the California Oil
Saturday, November 2, 2019
The Analysis Of Article A Phony Hero For A Phony War - Essay Example In regards to General David PetraeusÃ¢â¬â¢ case, Lucian K. Truscott argues that he did not achieve anything during his service in Iraq and Afghanistan. Instead, Lucian views General David PetraeusÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy of seeking the loyalties of various factions in Iraq as a strategy of seeking personal fame and acclamation. This, according to Lucian, influenced General David PetraeusÃ¢â¬â¢ appointment as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (Truscott, 2012). Lucian views the achievements and high publicity acclaimed to General David Petraeus as inappropriate in comparison to the Generals of the World War II era who achieved significantly more than David did. In essence, Lucian K. TruscottÃ¢â¬â¢s article seems to criticize General David Petraeus viewing him as a blustery individual who sought media publicity to advance his personal course. In light of this, Lucian views the appointment of General David Petraeus to the Directorship position of the Central Intelligence Agency as well as his deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan as erroneous measures that would have cost the nation greatly (Truscott, 2012).
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Nature and Causes of the Declining Political Participation in the United States - Research Paper Example 2008). Ultimately, numerous people think that the government is not functioning in a useful way in society and fails to grant authority for the system they resist by taking part in it. A Brief History of U.S. Political Participation Historically, the United States has the lowest ranks of political participation, as determined by voter turnouts, of any leading industrial democracy. The United States is ranked below other highly industrialized democratic countries, excluding Switzerland, a country known for its steady electioneering and repudiation, until in recent times, to grant women suffrage rights, in cross-country turnout. G. Bingham Powell Jr. (1986 as cited in Crotty 1991), evaluating trends of political participation across 19 modern democratic countries, assumed that Ã¢â¬Å"voter turnout in the United States is severely inhibited by its institutional conflictÃ¢â¬ ¦ the U.S. was disadvantaged by voluntary registration, unevenly competitive electoral districts, and very weak l inkages (perceptual and organizational) between parties and social groupsÃ¢â¬ (pp. 25-26). Powell (1986 as cited in Crotty 1991) concludes that party system and institutional variables slow down turnout and registration processes, primary causes of the low ranking of the United States in terms of political participation compared to other countries. Robert W. Jackman, in a similar study of levels of political participation in 19 modern democratic nations, although opposing Powell over the function of the political traditions of a country in influencing the political participation rates, stresses the role of political institutions, such as electoral guidelines, political... Historically, the United States has the lowest ranks of political participation, as determined by voter turnouts, of any leading industrial democracy. The United States is ranked below other highly industrialized democratic countries, excluding Switzerland, a country known for its steady electioneering and repudiation, until in recent times, to grant women suffrage rights, in cross-country turnout. G. Bingham Powell Jr. (1986 as cited in Crotty 1991), evaluating trends of political participation across 19 modern democratic countries, assumed that Ã¢â¬Å"voter turnout in the United States is severely inhibited by its institutional conflictÃ¢â¬ ¦ the U.S. was disadvantaged by voluntary registration, unevenly competitive electoral districts, and very weak linkages (perceptual and organizational) between parties and social groupsÃ¢â¬ (pp. 25-26). Powell (1986 as cited in Crotty 1991) concludes that party system and institutional variables slow down turnout and registration processes, primary causes of the low ranking of the United States in terms of political participation compared to other countries. Robert W. Jackman, in a similar study of levels of political participation in 19 modern democratic nations, although opposing Powell over the function of the political traditions of a country in influencing the political participation rates, stresses the role of political institutions, such as electoral guidelines, political parties, and national electoral districts, in forming electorates (Ramakrishnan 2005).
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Biblical Worldview Essay Essay The Apostle Paul wrote to the Roman church to prepare them for his visit to Rome prior to leaving for Spain. He explained to the church how Christians, Jews and Gentiles alike, should view the natural world, our identity, our relationships, and our culture due to our relationship with Christ. He explains the necessity for righteousness because without Christ we are dead in our sin. But God, through his goodness and grace has provided a way to righteousness through Jesus Christ. The Natural World According to Genesis, God created the heavens and earth (our natural world) and everything in them. In Romans 1:20 Paul states, Ã¢â¬Å"For since the creation of the world GodÃ¢â¬â¢s invisible qualities-his eternal power and divine nature-have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.Ã¢â¬ God created the world, his power and authority is evident in this creation and in this way man was supposed to know Him. However they turned their backs on him and according to verse 22 Ã¢â¬Å"exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles.Ã¢â¬ Because of Adam and EveÃ¢â¬â¢s disobedience in the Garden of Eden, sin came into our natural world which started the demise of spiritual man as well as GodÃ¢â¬â¢s intended order. Human Identity Ã¢â¬Å"God created man in his own image,Ã¢â¬ (Gen 1:27). Our identity is firmly established by knowing God, more specifically, knowing God through Jesus Christ. We are created with a Ã¢â¬Å"God shaped voidÃ¢â¬ in our spirit man. If we do not fill that void with a relationship with God, we will seek to fill it with anything else that gives us temporary pleasure. Paul says in Romans chapter 1, that men turned away from God and turned to idol worship. Three times in this chapter Paul states that God Ã¢â¬Å"gave them overÃ¢â¬ to their sinful desires (v.24), their shameful lusts (v. 26), and their depraved minds. (v28). In and of ourselves, we are destined to die, not only physically but spiritually. God however, has made a way. Paul eloquently shares the path to salvation, righteousness, and sanctification through Jesus Christ.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Effective leadership impact on organization success A leader is anyone who uses interpersonal skill to influence others to accomplish specific goal. The functions of a leader are to achieve a consensus within the group about its goal, maintain a structure that facilitates accomplishing the goal, supply necessary information that helps to provide direction and clarification, and maintain group satisfaction, cohesion, and performance (Sullivan Decker, 2010).Leadership is viewed as the process of guiding, teaching motivating and directing the activities of others towards attaining goals. It involves having the ability to influence others (EllisHartley, 2005). The Leadership is the relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow. Innovative leadership is needed in academic institution as the pressure to deliver high quality care. Yet, nursing academic leaders are often chosen for leadership position based solely on their performance in academic endeavours (Chen, Beck Amose, 2005). During times of dramatic organizational changes in health systems, nursing management is both challenging and difficult task. The style of the manager can be important for subordinates acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve high quality of care. Leadership style in the sense of a managers way of influencing the subordinates and researches on leadership style is mostly based on a theory that there are specific behaviours, which together develop leadership style. New leadership behaviour has developed, more focused on change within the company (Sellgren, EkvallTomson, 2006).The purpose of this study is to describe different leadership style and examine effective leader and discuss how a leader can develop effective leadership style and you should focus on how effective leadership impacts an organizations potential to succeed. Article for this paper collected from ebcohost research database, google scholar and from the books of leadership and management. Different styles of leadership A transformational leader may be defined as a leader who motivates followers to perform their full potential by influencing changes in the perceptions and providing in the sense of direction to the group. The group is encouraged to set aside personal interests for the good of the group. Group members are empowered and motivated and provide input to decision making and leaders and followers raise one another to higher level of performance (EllisHartley2005).Relational leadership is viewed as s relational process designed to accomplish a common goal to benefit all. As with transformational leadership the leader is empowering and process oriented moving the group towards the goal (EllisHartley,2005).Servant leadership theory in which the successful leaders as being able to influence others as a result of dedicating their life to serving others(EllisHarley,2005). Transactional leadership is based on social exchange theory. In this style leaders are successful to the extent that they understand and meet the needs of followers and use incentives to enhance employees loyalty and performance. This style is aimed at maintaining equilibrium, by performing work according to the policy and procedures, maximising self interest and personal rewards, emphasising interpersonal dependence and routine performance (Sullivan Decker, 2010).Quantum leadership is based on concept of chaos theory. In this frame work, employees become directly involved in decision making as equitable and accountable partners and managers assume more off an influential facilitative role rather than one of control(Sullivan Decker, 2010). Charismatic leadership is based on personal qualities such as charm, persuasiveness, personal power, self confidence extraordinary ideas, and strong conviction. Few leaders possess genuine charisma. (Sullivan Decker, 2010). Shared leadership which is based on the empowerment principles of participative and transformational leadership Essential elements of shared leadership are relationship dialogues, partnership and understanding boundaries. The application of shared leadership assumes that well educated, highly professional, dedicated work force is comprised of many leaders (Sullivan Decker, 2010).According to behaviour based theories, there are four styles of leadership the first one the autocratic leadership assumes that the leader exercise ultimate power in decision making and control rewards and punishments for the subordinates in confirming to their decision. The second one the democratic leadership assumes that individuals are motivated by internal drives and impulses, want active participation in decisions and want to get the task done, the leaders uses participation and majority rule in setting goals and working towards achievement (Sullivan Decker, 2010). The laissez-faire leadership style also assumes that individual are motivated by internal drives and impulses and that may lead to left alone to make decision about how to complex the work, the leader provides no direction or fecilitation.The forth style is the bureaucratic leadership style. The bureaucrat leadership assumes that employees are motivated by external forces. This leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decision and therefore relies on organizational policies and rules to identify goals and direct work process (Sullivan Decker, 2010). How a leader can develop effective leadership style. Effective leaders are those who acknowledge the importance of task oriented and relationship oriented action and to seek to provide structure and support for subordinates (EllisHartley2005).In transactional leadership style followers agree about achieving the required goal and objectives in exchange for rewards or praise. Once goal is achieved rewards are provided. By contrast the transformational is visionary and charismatic resulting in motivated employees (Farag, McguinnesAnthoy, 2008).The transformational organizational culture usually characterised by flexibility and creativity with emphasis on questioning policies, strategies, and method used, to acquire more effective organizational performance strongly associated with climates that restrict creativity and innovation, and they are able to create synergetic environment that enhance collaboration towards change.(Hendel, Fish Galone,2005). One studies conducted among CEOs and subordinate managers by Spinelli, the subordinate manager perceived more the leader as exhibiting transformational behaviour, the grater he or she reported exerting extra effort, expressed satisfaction with leader and believed leader to be more effective. The relationship between transformational leadership and the outcome factors were stronger and more positive than the transaction style and lasses- faire. Contingent rewards correlated less positively with the outcomes, management by exception and laissez faire correlated negatively by outcome factors. The contingent reward process produce only anticipated level of effort and standard performance. A limitation of transaction leadership style is that it offers little encouragement to exceed and achieve performance beyond the transactional contract. (Spinelli, 2006).Some scholars describes the transactional leaders as one who subordinate and controls, while transformational leaders sets direction a nd create opportunities for the professional development of individual health care team members. But some argue that the transactional leader is often self centred, leading via directive and mandates, while more transformational leader in an inclusive motivator, proactively solving problem that promote team effectiveness (Brien,Martin,HeyworthMeyer,2008). Moreover in transaction leadership the one of the main criticism is the lacking of vision for future and endorsing only first order changes which implicate on policy and procedure rather than organizational or cultural change. On the other hand transformational leader motivate and energize staff to pursue mutual goals share vision and secure an empowering culture, where personal value and reciprocated respect are fundamental principles. However to achieve this level the nurse manager may constantly familiarise themselves with legislative and policy document that impact upon health care delivery to ensure that they assumes realistic and attainable goal (Murphy, 2005).Transformational leadership may be associated with .job satisfaction and well being appears, at least partially, to be through the creation of working environment characterised by employees working environment by employees experiencing their work as a meaningful, having influence and being involved in their work. (Nielsen , Yarker, Brenner, RandallBrog, 2008) A transformational leader is a courageous change agent who is skilled in managing situations of uncertainty. The effective transformational leader uses language to create within the individual follower a sense of competency and sense of self. When the leaders set forth high expectations followers are convinced that they are capable of accomplishing goal of moral and enduring purpose also through the effective communications that the followers are persuaded to make the differences to make an enduring change. The leader is crucial to this transformation but the essence of transformational leadership is that the followers do not become dependent on the leader, they instead become a leader. A more hierarchical, autocratic leadership style is not a trusted agent adequate for change. A group of followers disillusioned with unfair system of leadership is ripe for emergence of a transformational leader who will organise and empower them to move towards the necessary adaptation of autonomy (K amm-Larew, Stanford, Green, HeacoxHodge, 2008). Another study conducted about leadership style of Finnish nursing managers, democratic leadership style was found as important, because it promoted employees commitment to work. This style gives the impression that the managers really want to hear employees thoughts and works as a team member. But autocratic leadership style was typical in work place where people had to react quickly and effectively to changing situations. It resembled commanding leadership style which decreases the autonomy of nurses. An autocratic leadership style prevents empowerment of nurses, because they do not have possibilities to participate in work planning (Vesterinen, IsolaPaasivaara, 2009). Autocratic and task oriented leadership styles require absolute obedience from followers, with an expectation of worker efficiency in order to accomplish group goals (Chang, 2008). One study in UK regarding servant leadership principles, applied in the care of rural older adults utilizing a service leaning experience in the delivery of health and wellness, is a perfectly appropriate application of inter professional care. This study demonstrates the essential process of inter professional education by supporting the facilitated exchange of skills, knowledge and disposition between faculty and students, provider and client, theory and practice. Community based education which fosters a collaborative approach to care, improved communication, and valued expertise of team members benefits all, particularly a segment of population at elevated risk of disease and disability (Neil, Hayward, Peterson, 2007).But another research conducted about servant leadership among doctors and nurses, nurses have a more positive self -perception of themselves as servant leaders than physician (Garber, Madigan, ClickFitzpatrick, 2009). How effective leadership impacts an organizations potential to succeed Effective leadership is seen as a potent source of management developed and sustained competitive advantage for organizational performance improvement .For instance transactional leadership help organizations achieve their current objectives more efficiently by linking job performance to valued reward and by ensuring employees have the resource needed to get the job done. Visionary leaders create a strategic vision of some future state, communicate that vision through framing and use of a metaphor, model of vision by acting consistently, and build commitment towards the vision. Some scholars suggest that visionary leadership will result in high level of cohesion, commitment, trust, motivation, and hence performance in the new organizational environment. (Jing Avery, 2008). Transformational leader achieve organizational goal by empowering staff that are committed to the same organizational goal (Farag et al 2008). But organizational Bureaucracy, hierarchy, authoritarian leadership and poor access to information were to found limit empowerment and leader to dissatisfaction, burnout and absenteeism. (Tomey, 2009). It might be important that rather than changing implementing wide range of organizational changes for a large number of employees, many studies suggest that training the supervisor might have similar impact. Training staff at managerial level might be more cost effective and easy to control than implementing wide ranging organizational change. (Nielsen et al, 2008). Moreover transformational leadership style foster healthy staff focused work places and positive work place management initiative such as shared organizational goal, learning opportunities, career development, reward schemes, autonomy, participation and empowerment strategies but poor leadership and management styles ,impatient ,defensive ,unsupportive leadership lack of supervision and guidance, control, and lack of recognitions of contribution have been identified as major stressors.( Tomey,2009).According to a study conducted among dentist about exploring leadership style , autocratic decision making process were associated with increased organizational ambiguity and higher degree of functional identity . Not surprisingly, dentist given the highest leadership ratings engaged staff members in participative decision making process, affording them the opportunity to learn about possible change and to offer input. (Chilcutt, 2009). Transformational leaders rely on empathy to understand followers thoughts, feelings, and point of view. Leaders with empathetic qualities inspire greater depth of self -exploration in followers and the supportive interpersonal orientation increases followers positive perceptions about the leader, feelings, and job satisfaction. To bring about organizational change through higher performance, transformational leader must fully engage and connect with their followers. The key factors like evocations, framing, and mobilizations of emotions with a leader can change the organization through commitment. Emotional bonds are implicit in transformational leadership behaviours. Leader who responds empathetically to co-workers can improve organizational effectiveness. In addition transformational leaders change their organization by persuading followers to embrace positive vision and ideals. (Barbuto Burbach, 2006).However, in general the effect of leadership on organizational performance has not been well studied. Some researchers criticised leadership studies for focussing excessively on subordinate relationship to the exclusion of several other function that leaders perform, and to the exclusion of organizational and environmental variables that are crucial to mediate the leadership-performance relationship (Jing Avery, 2008). Conclusion. In conclusion leadership is viewed as the process of guiding, teaching motivating and directing the activities of others towards attaining goal. It involves having abilities to influence others. Leadership often involves moving in to a position because of special abilities skills or attributes and may be formal or informal within the organization. It can be seen that there are different leadership styles mostly based on theory that there are specific behaviours which together developed as leadership styles. Each style has specific aim and goals and it effectiveness varies according to the situation, characteristics of the leader and the followers in which they function. It is evidenced that from above literature each leadership style has advantages and disadvantages and may used productively according to the situation. Majority of the studies suggest that, when comparing different leadership style, transformational leadership is better than other styles because of clear vision, capac ity to empower the followers, empathy, autonomy, chances of career development and learning. Moreover leadership has crucial role in the success of the organizational potential and performance. Success can be achieved by training the staff at the managerial level may be cost effective and more beneficial rather than changing wide range of organizational change. Some researchers suggest that visionary leadership may help high level of performance in the new organizational environment. More researches and studies needed for the development of effective leadership style and its impact on organizational success.