Saturday, August 31, 2019
A combination of hardware, software, infrastructure and trained personnel organized to facilitate planning, control, coordination, and decision making in an organisation Contrast IS and IT: What is the difference between Information Systems and Information Technology? In: Computer Terminology, Technology, Information Technology[Edit categories] Answer: Information Systems is a large umbrella referring to systems designed to create, store, manipulate, or disseminate information. Example of an information system is a pencil and a piece of paper. The two objects themselves are just tools, but together they create a system for writing (information). The term Information systems has been around a lot longer than the computer, or the term information technology. These days the two are sometimes thought to be synonymous, but that, in most cases is a misconception. Information technology falls under the information systems umbrella, but has nothing to do with systems per say. IT deals with the technology involved in the systems themselves, e.g. an information system like wiki.answers.com contains many information technologies. Servers, server operating systems, web-server software (IIS, Apache, et al), and code written for the web-server software (PHP, C#, VB, PERL, Ruby, et al). Even your computer and browser make up part of this information system. Like the pencil and paper example, each one of the mentioned parts of this information system in itself is an information technology. That being said, most people in the profession no longer make a distinction. Moreover, companies call their IS/IT department a wide range of titles based on more on culture and tradition than anything else. Assist With Business Processes Information systems aid businesses in developing a larger number of valueÃ added-systems in the company. For example, a company can integrate information systems with the manufacturing cycle to ensure that the output it produces complies with the requirements of the various quality management standards. Adoption of information systems simplifies business processes and removes unnecessary activities. Information systems add controls to employee processes, ensuring that only users with the applicable rights can perform certain tasks. Further, information systems eliminate repetitive tasks and increase accuracy, allowing employees to concentrate on more high-level functions. Information systems can also lead to better project planning and implementation through effective monitoring and comparison against established criteria.
Friday, August 30, 2019
1.0 Background of the Study Picardal Institute of Science and Technology (PIST) is an institution founded last July 12, 2008 and was located at the 2nd floor of MichaellaÃ¢â¬â¢s Plaza, Andres Bonifacio Avenue, National Highway, Tibanga, Iligan City, province of Lanao del Norte, Philippines. This institution offers different courses under Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) like Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Associate in Computer Technology, Two Year Graduate in Midwifery Program, Computer Hardware Servicing NC II, Food and Beverage Services NC II, Housekeeping NC II, Shielded Metal Arc Welding NC I and II, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding NC II, Bookkeeping NC III and Programming NC IV. They also offers short courses like Computer Literacy, PC Repair Basic and Advanced AutoCAD, Web Development, WordPress, Photoshop, English Proficiency, Welding Enhancement and Pipefitting. Since from its founding year, PIST in its 6th year in service of providing quality education to its students, they faced so many circumstances and one of it, is the problem in Cashier Department. As of today, the Cashier tends to do her job manually with so many paper works to be done, and so we, the researchers propose a computerized system. This Cashiering System will provide a computerized storing of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s data, the enrolment assessment of the enrollee with the amount they need to pay during the training and with the entire breakdown. This system will also help the cashier into less paper works and less time to consume in inputting the student information; it can also generate cash flow report, list of student in every semester and daily reports of income. By using this system the cashier will be able to back-up her files, store information of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s in database and restrict the unauthorized personnel to access this information. The cashier is not the only one who could benefit to this project but also the entire school along with the students, where they could be rest assuredÃ that the Cashier Department will give them real status when it comes to their financial standing. 1.1 Conceptual Framework Through the given input from the student that is the StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Personal Information, course and subject load that will be the process and save into the database where we can add, edit, delete and save the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s number of units as well as their payments and we will be able to assume that through this information we could come up to the expected output that is the summary of student accounts, inquiry of accounts, billing statement and assessment of fees. 1.2 Statement of the Problem This study aims to provide a computerized system that where specifically seek an answer to the following problems. 1. Many paper works. 2. No cashiering system yet. 3. No back-ups and easy to copy, edit and/or delete files without authorization. 4. Manual billing statement. 5. Transactions lack of security. 6. Could be used by unauthorized personnel. 7. Uneasy to search. 8. Summarizing data and writing reports takes a lot of time. 9. Data Duplication. 1.3 Objectives After identifying the problems we came up to these following objectives. 1. To lessen paper works to Cashier Department. 2. To provide a cashiering system. 3. To provide a proper storage with back-up features. 4. To generate a computerized billing statement. 5. To make a tangible system with full security. 6. To provide a system that restrict unauthorized user. 7. To provide a more easy way to search information inside the system. 8. To generate an automated summaries of every transactions. 9. To avoid redundancies of data in the database. 1.4 Significance of the Study This study was made to find out that the use of cashier system will lessen the time for the transaction of billing statements and payment. Also in using this system it can recognize the person involve in this study. This study will benefit the following person: Cashier of Picardal Institute of Science and Technology Ã¢â¬â it can help them to lessen their tasks in preparing of summary of billing statements. Students Ã¢â¬â it will provide them an easy way to pay their bills and they will benefit the accurate status of their tuition. To provide good services to students. To the Future Researchers Ã¢â¬â it can help them as a guide to enhance more from their future thesis. 1.5 Scope and Limitation 1.5.1 Scope The scope of this study focuses only on receiving payments from and process charges of students and also on tracking deposits and payments against student accounts. 1.5.2 Limitation The study is based on the PISTÃ¢â¬â¢s System flow and policies in cashiering, thus its capability is according to PISTÃ¢â¬â¢s needs only. Definition of Terms Assessment Ã¢â¬â refers to the total amount of which the enrollee enrolled in that particular academic and/or school year. It is where the student identifies the breakdown of their tuition per academic and/or school year. Billing Statement Ã¢â¬â it is a monthly or per examination summary of the current and/ or balances of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s tuition in that academic and/or school year. Breakdown Ã¢â¬â is the way that where the student able to see where all of his/her payments go. Cashier Ã¢â¬â it is a person who works at a store or other business who takes money, makes change, issues receipts and otherwise helps to facilitate customer transactions. Cashiering System Ã¢â¬â it is a System to receive payments from and process charges for students, employees, and the general public. Cashier Department Ã¢â¬â is responsible for receivingÃ and distributing funds, as well as maintaining records. The cashierÃ¢â¬â¢s department enables to keep records of dividends and other payouts and receiving payments from the students and /or clients. Computerized System Ã¢â¬â A computerized system is a computer system with a purpose. When we talk about a computer system, we are simply referring to the hardware and software that comprise the computer system. But when we talk about a computerized system, we are referring to a function (process or operation) integrated with a computer system and performed by trained people. Database Ã¢â¬â A database is an organized collection of data. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring this information. Student Ã¢â¬â is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. Is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies gathered from different sources to support the findings and results of the study. 2.0 Related Literature Most institutions and establishments that we visit are using computerized systems to easily cater the needs of the customers or clients. It will also provide a better service to its clientele as well. The system will properly accommodate the needs of the students and the parents in taking the statement of accounts. It will provide an accurate, fast and smart statement of accounts to students that are up-dated for the school administrator and the students. It will also provide students to view their own statement of accounts. When having a computerized system we will be able to have an advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of having a computerized system are: Saving Time Ã¢â¬â One important advantage offered by computerized accounting is it can save time for small business owners, who often must wear many hats. Calculations for functions likeÃ payroll and billing can be performed quickly and efficiently by accounting software programs designed for small businesses. You can also access accounting records quickly without having to sift through stacks of paper. This can allow you to spend more time working with clients or performing marketing functions to help your busines s grow. Reduced Errors Ã¢â¬â Manual Ã¢â¬Å"number crunchingÃ¢â¬ presents the possibility of human error, which can be costly to a small business owner who may be in a hurry to complete an accounting task. Computerized accounting programs can reduce calculation errors that can result in inaccurate inventory counts, billing for too large or small of an amount or incorrect sales receipt totals. Having accurate accounting information can also help you avoid tax errors that could lead to problems with the Internal Revenue Service. Disadvantages: Dependence on Machinery Ã¢â¬â On the downside, as with all machines, computers can fail from time to time, and a computer crash could leave you unable to perform accounting tasks and even result in the loss of information if files are not backed up properly. If you and/or your staff has little accounting knowledge and relies heavily on your computerized accounting program to do all the work, you may be at a loss as to what to do when your system or computer fails. Security breaches can also result in lost or stolen data. Expense Ã¢â¬â Another disadvantage is that if youÃ¢â¬â¢re converting from a manual to mechanized accounting system, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to bear the expense of software and possibly even new computers. Training on how to use a computerized system can result in lost productivity due to the associated downtime and learning curve. As time goes by, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely need to spend money on software upgrades as new versions become available. When your computers malfunction, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to pay for potentially costly repairs or replacements. Fewer errors mean fewer headaches Ã¢â¬â there are countless ways in which errors can creep into your transactions. The more data entry required, the greater the chances for error. So a cashiering system which is able to supply the required information on the cashierÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf, while minimizing data entry, is highly desirable. Put another way, the moreÃ automation applied to the process, the better. Provide outstanding service Ã¢â¬â it will reduce excessive waiting in line, eliminate delays in restoring the paid-up status of a student account, avoid egregious errors such as posting payments to the bank, provide for rapid production of duplicate receipts, cancel non-paying students more promptly to accommodate returning students, accepts payments even when the student system is down and automatically release the appropriate students holds when an account is made current. Note: Author & year 2.1 Related Studies According to the research we made, there are other institutions here in Iligan City that uses computerized systems for Cashier Department that would assessed the students in a more easy and handful way. With this computerized system, it lessens the time consumed in accommodating all the students who will made transactions in the cashier department. Note: Author & year Chapter III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The topics are given a deeper explanation in this chapter and the researchers will present the study. It consist of the research method, research instrument, interview, questionnaire, construction, validation, survey, administration and retrieval, research locale, population and sampling techniques, data gathering procedure, project design, project development, testing and operating procedures. 3.0 Project Design Through observation and interview we come up to these designs and coding.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
He currently goes to Hicks High School, where his mother graduated from. His dad, however, did not go to Hicks, but instead went to a high school in Georgia. Besides his dad, his other family members have went and graduated from Hicks. He enjoys going to school at Hicks. He likes going to learn about new things from all of his teachers. While talking to some of his classmates about him, I have learned a few things. Some say that he a very quiet guy and that he should work as a security guard for Abercrombie amp; Finch. Others say he is a good friend and funny once you get him to talk to you. Joycelyn, however, said, Ã¢â¬Å"Jody is very quiet in class, but outside of school when he does talk he is very funny. He also never gives anyone any trouble, and is a very easy guy to get along with. Unlike most of the guys that out there. Ã¢â¬ So if you know him out of school, then you would say that Jody is a good guy to talk too, but in school he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t talk to you very much. He likes to play sports at his school. Jody plays baseball and runs cross country. They are the two favorite sports that he likes to play. He likes to run cross country, so that by the time it gets to baseball season he will be in shape. He also likes to run cross country because it helps get some frustration and anger out of his system. The sport that he loves the most is and will always be baseball. Ever since he was able to pick up a baseball he has played. Throughout the years and with the guidance of his cousin Aaron, saying Ã¢â¬Å"he would never be as good of a baseball player as he was,Ã¢â¬ must have paid off. He and his team won the Class C State Championship for the thirteenth time in 2011. Whenever he and his team won the thirteenth Class C State Championship, they experienced the best feeling that they could have ever felt in life so far. The baseball team was pretty excited about playing in the championship game again, since the last time they played the got beat out in the semifinals. Early that morning some of the cheerleaders went and set up signs along highway 28, while the baseball team ate their game-day breakfast. These were signs wishing the boys good luck and to bring home the thirteenth title for our school. When they saw what the cheerleaders had done, they told us thank you and that it made them want the championship more than ever. On the way there, they got themselves pumped and ready to play some ball. Whenever the game started, some of the cheerleaders and fans were already pumped up and cheering them on. It must have help because in the first few innings they got a big lead against Family Christian Academy. Then they started to relax and act like they had the game in the bag already. Most teams would have given up if they were in Family Christians situation. Family Christian, however, wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t giving up that easily. Instead, they stayed calm and fought back. Top of the ninth, Hicks was still ahead. One of our guys on the field messed up and they scored one or two runs. That gave Family Christian some faith and energy to score more runs. Two outs this would be Family Christians last batter if Hicks could get the last out. With one of their better hitters up, he swung and missed. Ã¢â¬ Strike one,Ã¢â¬ says the umpire. Our pitcher takes a few breaths, and pitches again. Ã¢â¬Å"Ball one,Ã¢â¬ says the umpire. The count being 1-1, Coach Gary had to make a decision. Try to get the batter to chase after something, or to let our pitcher pitch his game and pitch another strike. Ã¢â¬Å"Ball two,Ã¢â¬ says the umpire, now they had no decision on whether or not to pitch a strike or ball. Here comes the pitch, swung and hit to third baseman, Ty Helton. With the game on the line, Ty fielded it without any bobbles and threw to toward first baseman, Ty Williams. Ty Williams barely could think straight, knowing that if he dropped this ball and they lost the game, his teammates and coach would be upset with him. Ty ended up catching the ball and getting the last out, to end the game 10-9. As a fan of that game, I would have loved to get a picture of all the players faces after getting the last out and being astonished that they had won the thirteenth state title for their school in Class C. Like always, at the end of the game Hicks did a dog pile in the middle of the field. The joy and astonishment that was in those players will never be forgotten by them. Last year, however, they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do too well. They ended up losing out second round playoffs against Converse, 3-2. This year coming up should be an awesome year for them, and they should go far. Besides going to school and playing baseball, he likes to hunt, go four-wheeler riding, hang out with his friends, play video games and also spending time with his family. Over the summers Jody and his family have traveled to all of the states, except for Hawaii and Alaska. He hopes to one day be able to explore the other two states and see how much different their way of living and how their cultures and beliefs are different from the southern states. While he was growing up he loved spending time with his grandpa. I have never heard of anyone that reminds me of him. The reason why is because his grandpa has owned more than 50 trucks at most since he was born. I would definitely think that out of all of his family members his favorite three family members would be his mom, grandpa, and his cousin Keith. The reason I would say this is because Keith played in the National Football League and of course his mom because she has always been there for him. As for his other family members, he does appreciate having them and loves them very much. When heÃ¢â¬â¢s around them though, his true personality comes out. He goes from being shy and not talking very much, to him being very sociable and acting like he enjoys them being there for him and having them as company. Once he warms up to the strangers and starts to get to know them a little better he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be as shy. His future plans are to graduate from high school, but basically to live life every day to the fullest because you never know when you last day may come. After graduating from high school, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what he wants to do as far as the type of job that he may want or that he may be good at. He also plans to live in Hicks, Louisiana near his parents live. He hopes that one day he may get his dream car, which is a Roadrunner, with the money from whatever job he may get. Whatever other plans he may discover or think of after high school will enable him to obtain and succeed. If Jody would apply himself to things more in school or in life, like he does in baseball he will be able to succeed in the job area or profession that would suit him well and also allow him to make him a good bit of money.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Tourism situation analysis ( Qatar ) - Essay Example With this study we will try to answer questions like: how will Qatar build upon its existing infrastructure and make tourism centric hotspots and venues in its cities? What are the predictions in tourism industry in Qatar? What is the average time frame that Qatar needs to follow while executing a tourism development plan? Which model or strategy in tourism development will help Qatar make fast progress? Qatar has a promising economic situation (Hong, 2008, 12), in which seventy percent of the revenue is derived from petroleum. Petroleum export is also a major constituent of their exports as it makes a solid 85 percent contribution in the export industry. Overall, Qatar has a bright prospect of turning into a tourism hotspot if it concentrates on building infrastructure and cities that attract tourists with appealing buildings and scenic locales. In 2009, the overall tourism revenue gathered by Qatar was estimated to be a total of USD 0.7 billion, which was way behind the UAE at USD 7.2 billion and Bahrain at USD 1.1 billion (Euromonitor International, 2010, p.2). Currently, Qatar wishes to build on its tourism infrastructure to be able to successfully host the football World cup in 2022, which makes it the first Arab country to be able to host such a prestigious global sports event. It had previously hosted the Asian Games in 2006 and has been successful in giving players and organ izers sufficient numbers of rooms and hospitality options. Today, Qatar is looking to attract investments in tourism, concentrating mainly on hotels, sports utilities and infrastructure, and hopes to utilize its existing plans to build around tourism industry in the meantime. The question that arises is will Qatar succeed to the level it has targeted or will it only lag behind the other Gulf States? Visitor Market Ã¢â¬â The most important section of tourists that visit Qatar regularly comprises business professionals who are flying
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Political change in the age of revolutions in France - Essay Example In the end, though, the dynasty that Napoleon hoped to found and the empire he set up both proved fragile. His unconditional abdication in 1814 was not the end of the story. He returned to France just under a year later from Elba where he had lived in pensioned exile, and the restored Bourbon regime vowed out at a touch. However, the battle of Waterloo in June 1815 ended Napoleon's illustrious history. The regime installed in 1815 was still there, although somewhat shaken forty years later. This owed much to the salutary fear of revolution. In all the major continental states the restoration era, as the years after 1815 have been termed, was a great period for policemen, conspirators and plotters alike. Secret societies were widespread, undeterred by failure after failure. Class struggles proliferated. This period showed, however, that there was no subversive threat that could not be quashed easily enough. Incorrectly, liberalism and nationalism were usually considered to be inseparable; this was to be proven terribly wrong in later times, but in so far as a few people did seek to change by revolution before 1848, it is largely true that they wanted to do so by espousing both the political principles of the French Revolution - government by representation, popular sovereignty, individual and press freedom - and those of nationality. To the west of the Rhine, where the writ of the Holy Alliance, as was referred the big three conservative powers (Russia, Austria and Prussia), did not run, the story was different; there legitimism was to last for a short period. The very reinstitution of the Bourbon dynasty in 1814 had itself been a bargain with the principle of legitimacy. Louis XVIII was supposed to have ascended to power like any other French King, but he...The man was Napoleon Bonaparte, the republic's former general and this time the First Consul of the new regime and soon to be France's first Emperor. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte had a great personal reputation and popularity. No one but the beaten politicians much regretted it when Bonaparte swept them aside and assumed power.After 1852 France was ruled by an emperor who again bore the name of Napoleon. He was the nephew of the first Napoleon. He had been elected president of the Second Republic, whose constitution he then rejected by a coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat. Th e name Napoleon was itself terrifyingly portentous. It evoked a program of international reconstruction, in short, a revolution. Napoleon III Ã¢â¬â the second was legal fiction, a son of Napoleon I who had actually never ruled Ã¢â¬â stood for the destruction of the anti-French settlement of 1815 and, hence, of the Austrian domination which supported it up in Germany and Italy. He declared the rhetoric of nationalism with less reticence than most rulers and appears to have believed in it. With diplomacy and arms, Napoleon III forwarded the work of two great diplomatic technicians, Cavour and Bismarck, the prime ministers of Sardinia and of Prussia, respectively. Cavour died in 1861, and debate still persists over what was the extent of his real aims, but by 1871 his successors had established a united Italy under the former King of Sardinia, who was thus rewarded for the loss of Savoy, the ancestral duchy of his house.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Risk Management in Brewin Dolphin Holdings Plc - Essay Example The object of analysis for the purpose of this assignment is Brewin Dolphin Holding PLC (BDH), a company that offers investment services to its client. The industry in which the company operates is the financial services. Brewin Dolphin Holding offers private investment advice to its richly diverse customers. The company operates in the following markets: England, Wales and the Channel Islands, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Bell Lawrie, Wise Speke in the North of England, and Hill Osborne in the East Midlands. This shows the extent of local market coverage by the Brewin Dolphin plc. BDH operates several subsidiaries which are wholly owned. The subsidiaries include Brewin Nominees Limited, North Castle Street (Nominee) Limited, and Brewin Dolphin Limited (that manages investments). In the recent past, the company formulated and implemented a new strategy that boosted the transformation rate of the services offered and increased the overall growth rate. The company operations are divided into two segments such as the investment management and corporate advisory and broking. Under the investment management segment, the following are the investment management advisory services provided by the company: pensions (including self-invested Pension plans), inheritance tax relief, ISAs and other tax-efficient investments, and international investment portfolios. Under the Corporate advisory and broking segment, the following activities are undertaken: market research, trading and sales services, and activities involving merger and acquisitions, debt advisory services among others. There is an increase in the demand for personal financial management advisory services. Thus, there is an anticipation of future growth in the market. The driving force behind the increase in demand is the increasing rate at which the society strives to become financially independent. In the United Kingdom alone, two million individuals were estimated to own liquid assets in excess of Ã £ 100,000 by the end of the year 2012. By that time, only Ã £ 548 billion of the funds were under the management of wealth management companies in the UK. Out of the eleven wealth management companies, Brewin Dolphin managed 15% of the total funds, giving a market share of 15%.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
During the placement identify a specific issue relating to nursing practice. (Progression development in mental health nursing) - Essay Example It requires a perfect understanding of the health problem, its effects and implications for other life and health functions in older people. Therefore, it is imperative for mental health nurses to develop professional awareness of the dementia problem and its risks in older people, in order to understand the ways of addressing this problem, as well as the personal and medical needs of older people. This paper aims at investigating the issue of dementia in older people from the standpoint of a mental health nurse. The paper will discuss and critically evaluate the significance of the problem for older people. Prevalence of dementia in older people and its effects on the critical life functions will be discussed. The paper will analyze the challenges, which mental health nurses face, while trying to deliver high quality nursing care. Other aspects of mental health care will be discussed, including nursing paradigms and therapeutic approaches, the role and the boundaries of a mental hea lth nurse in dementia care, and the role of effective planning and nurse-patient interactions in caring for older patients suffering from dementia. Legal and ethical factors of dementia care will be evaluated. This paper will expose the key problems related to mental health nursing and its role in dementia care. Practical recommendations for mental health nurses will be provided. ... ing those with dementia, constantly grows, and (b) dementia requires that nurses develop complex approaches to care, in order to reduce its negative influence on other life functions. The World Health Organization believes that the growing proportion of older people to the total population is a global phenomenon, and increasing age turns chronic health conditions into the issue of the main health importance (Anonymous 2009a). Among the most common health problems in older people, mental health disorders and cognitive impairments feature prominently (Anonymous 2009). Dementia and depression as the two most widely spread forms of chronic mental conditions later in life (Anonymous 2009a). Needless to say, the higher the proportion of older people to the general population, the more acute the problem of dementia grows. In its 2009 report, WHO estimated that almost 36 million of older people worldwide would be diagnosed of dementia and AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease in 2010 (Sorrell 2010). Th is number is likely to double every 20 years (Sorrell 2010). These statistical results have far-reaching implications for health care systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ operation and functioning. These implications are equally relevant to mental health nurses. Nurses need skills and knowledge to anticipate the development of cognitive changes in the older people and guarantee high quality care, which reduces social stigmatization of patients with dementia and improves their life and wellbeing. The problem is dangerous and complicated in the sense that dementia produces multiple negative effects on life and health functioning in older people. According to The World Health Organization, quality of life is Ã¢â¬Å"an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value system in which
Critically appraise the employment relations in non-union firms - Assignment Example Hence, there has been a decrease in unionization (Willman 2004). However, this too has its positives and negatives. Both aspects will be discussed in the following sections so that an understanding of the employment relations within non-union forms can be sought and an in-depth study shall provide the basis of comprehension of a number of different facets Ã¢â¬â all of which come under the aegis of employment relations. When considering employment relations there are certain implications for managers that they must consider when coming up with the policy for dealing with employee issues. The three most important factors that need to be considered are the public, the employer and employee. The functioning of the company is largely dependent upon the maintenance of fair, friendly, and mutually satisfactory employment relations and the availability of suitable machinery for the peaceful adjustment of whatever controversies may arise. The term non-union is defined as the employees or w orkers of an organization Ã¢â¬Å"not belonging or relating to a labor unionÃ¢â¬ 1. This type of company reduces the impact of collective bargaining where the company is more inclined to deal with the issues of the employees on a one to one basis (Boeri 2001). The advantages of this sort of system are more individual attention to grieved employees, which will increase their levels of motivation. It also means more company ownership by all levels of the workers who take pride in solving problems for the betterment of the company. Lastly, the monetary benefits for the company, who do not have to pay the dues of the unions and are more economically strong and can, improve their bottom line (Gannon 1987). There are also many other smaller advantages and disadvantages however they are beyond the scope of this paper. Most managers are of the opinion that the most important aspect of good employment relations are affective negotiations.Communication is the glue that makes policies real an d without which they are ineffective. The fact that communication is necessarily a two-way process, involving dialogue rather than simply instruction, is well established (Morley 2006). Yet many organizations perform badly in this area, failing to give communication the priority it deserves. Ã¢â¬Å"Getting communication right involves both professionalism and persistence. The qualities required include focusing on positive behaviors and outcomes, taking a positive, problem-solving approach, anticipating problems, recommending solutions and being able to offer sound advice to senior managers about implementation. Negotiating skills are still useful but needed less often. A much wider area of knowledge is now required, along with the skills to apply it, including surveying and interpreting employee attitudes, communications and conflict management. Most important is the ability to Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢ policies and practices to suit the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and the character of it s workforce.Ã¢â¬ 2 Affective negotiations are synonymous to successful negotiations which mean the activities Ã¢â¬Å"that results in a win-win agreement in which all parties gain overall, even though they may have to make concessions in the processÃ¢â¬ .3Additionally some managersÃ¢â¬â¢ say that both parties should not drift away too much from their desired outcomes as this only hampers the result while wasting valuable resources of the company. The main reason why managers avoid having unions, it can be a pain to work with unions when you have a poor performer, but it also is a
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Negative Impacts of Coal and Clean Coal Technology - Research Paper Example Different types of coal are found inside the Earth in collective form which are then extracted and used for different purposes (The formation of Coal: Planete Energies ). CLASSIFICATION Classification of coal is done on the basis of transformation of the plants. The more transformed plant material the better is the form of coal. The type of coal is determined by a process known as Proximate Analysis. In this process the constituents of coal are analyzed for classification. Various constituents of coal are water, volatile substance, carbon and dust. Coal is mainly classified on the basis of carbon present in it and the relative heat energy it can produce. There are two ranks of coal; lower rank consists of lignite and sub-bitunimous and the higher rank consists of bitunimous and anthracite. Lower rank coal has low carbon and energy levels. They are soft and friable in nature with somewhat brownish appreance. The higher rank coal has high carbon and energy level. They are hard and stro ng in nature with complete black apprence. However, along with coal, peat is also present with is not classified as coal because of its characteristics yet it plays a very important role in the formation of coal (The Energy Library: Types of coal). Peat It is not coal but it is related to the process of formation of coal. It has a soft apprence and it consists of deposited plant substances along with other chemicals. They are present in the wetland areas of Northern Hemisphere. Lignite It is also known as brown coal because of its apprence. It contains upto 60% carbon and 50% volatile substance. It can not produce high level of energy and therefore it is not traded in the market. It is usually used in power stations and industry boilers which are close to the coal mines. Since it has a soft texture therefore it is easily converted into gas or petrolem. Sub-bitunimous Next layer after lignite is of Sub-bitunimous coal which is formed by the plant fossils that are burried deeper in th e soil. It is hard and dark in color as compared to lignite and it can produre high level of clean energy as it has lower sulphur composition. Bitunimous It has upto 80% carbon and produces higher level of energy. It is also known as sedimentary rock because it possess deeper plant fossils and minerals. It generates smoke and dust when burned. The appearance of the coal is either dark brown or black with fine texture. It is significantly used in electric producing plants and industries and it is very appropriate for steel making. Anthracite It is ranked as the highest type of coal because it contains higher level of carbon. It is very hard and completely balck in color. It produces less smoke and lower flame. Anthracite is also known as blue coal, stone coal, black diamond, etc. It is found usually in the mountain ranges. USES Coal is substantially required to fulfil the present and future energy demands. Following are the most important uses of coal (World Coal Association: uses of coal): It is used as liquid fuel in production of steel, cement and electricity. Coal plays a major role in paper manufacturing, chemical industry, pharmaceutical sector and in rifnery of aluminia. The coal by-products are also used in production of certain chemicals. Coke ovens produces Amonia gas which is then used to produce ammonia salts, ferilizers and acids. Products of daily usage such as soap also contains coal.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Economics - Research Paper Example When corn was used as an alternative enery source then it is apparent that soy beans will be demanded because it was used in a different manner other than food consumption. The supply of soy beans will decrease because farmers tend to use their farmlands for production of corn due primarily to two supply determinants. The first one is factor prices, since the cost for production is the same. Instead of soy beans they will prefer to farm corn in their lands. The other is expectations for the future because of anticipation that they will be able to easily sell their harvest due to the demand in corn as a raw material in a type of alternative energy. To note, corn was used as a component in alternative enrgy production with no substitute or complement indicated while soy beans was a substitute and not a complement which yields that it is affected in supply and demand parallel to corn. The determinants of demand which includes income, tastes, preferences, prices of substitutes or complements, expectations of the future and population (Carleton University, 2008). Given the scenario, the price of corn oil is likely to increase because the raw material for it which is corn was used in a different manner. Corn oil is a preferred ingredient by people in their daily kitchen use so this lets it fall under taste and preference. Concurrently, Total Revenue will increase based on the assessment that it is inelastic (Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc., 2007). Increase in prices is greater than the increase in the quantity demanded which translate to an agmented total revenue for corn oil producers considering all
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Prayer in Counseling Essay In Eriksen and WeldÃ¢â¬â¢s journal article, the writers contend that spirituality and prayer is being utilized more and more by mental health practitioners and counselors. The concept of prayer within the counseling session is something that was considered for a long time but the actual use of spirituality practices is more frequently being used today. This particular article is based upon the data retrieved from two tests that were done on first time counselees and their practitioners. All of the counselees were Christians and results were based on what their expectations were regarding prayer and spirituality inventions. The test also surveyed what the beliefs and practices were of the counselors. Ultimately, the test showed that most counselees preferred the introduction of prayer within the sessions. They wished audible prayer was initiated by the counselor. Additionally, the test results also showed that clients expected prayer and even prefer that counselors or practitioners pray for them outside the prayer sessions as well. Another interesting thing that the test results showed was that religious natured conservatives preferred prayer more than the liberals of a religious nature. Overall, the studies from this article resulted in a confirmation that prayer is therapeutic and healthy for the clients. According to the article, spirituality has already been linked to a sturdy well-being and even secular counselors have used prayer intervention in sessions. There are many therapists that do not believe in mixing psychology with theology, however; the results seem to point to the fact that prayer intervention and spirituality produces effectiveness in psychotherapy sessions. There has been some controversy about using prayer in counseling such as improper use of prayer in counseling. In some cases, practitioners may not be trained properly to incorporate prayer and this could result in a damaged relationship between client and counselor. In some cases there are counselors that may not value prayer within the session but their clients may find it important. On the contrary, one of the studies showed that there were more counselors that valued prayer than their counselees. With these barriers to consider, research and examination of spirituality and prayer in counseling will be pursued further. Interaction It was quite amazing to see how high of a percentage of practitioners actually incorporate prayer with the counseling. There was a time when educators did not suggest using prayer or spirituality in the counseling sessions due to the delicacy of the subject of religion. Also, as a former secular counselor, there was some concern that many of the clients were not Christians and there may be offense taken by the client. After reading this journal article, it is enlightening to find out that many clients prefer prayer especially since many counselors are Christians now. Since there is very little research on the subject of prayer intervention, further research is crucial so that counselors can learn the proper way to incorporate prayer into the therapy session. Although the authors covered a pair of research studies on how effective prayer is to the success of the counseling session, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sufficient enough to say that the majority of people who come to counseling prefer prayer. The article covered a lot about proven effectiveness of spirituality with counseling but there needs to be more on how to properly incorporate the two entities. Prayer is enlightening to many counselors but it is still a sensitive subject and needs to be weaned in the right way. It is this authorÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion that prayer can be enlightening and beneficial to the mental health from personal experiences. The application of prayer and Biblical scriptures has been so uplifting for many clients but there are many out there that do not know the benefits of prayer. Dialogue is crucial when initiating prayer in the counseling session so the counselor needs to be well educated on the techniques. Spirituality and prayer has been utilized by this counselor and has been an integral tool in problem solving and keeping clients happy. As a Christian counselor, prayer for the client can be done after sessions whether the client wants it or not but during sessions should be carefully applied. It is because of this article that this author will study and investigate how to incorporate prayer carefully into the counseling session. Application It is because of this article that this author will study and investigate how to incorporate prayer carefully into the counseling session. Eriksen and WeldÃ¢â¬â¢s journal is an important tool and this author has definitely learned a lot from this reading. A client that comes in for grief counseling or depression would benefit from the therapeutic use of prayer. This author would carefully incorporate the Biblical scriptures as well as prayer on and off sessions because it is expected of a Christian. Since religion of any form is very sensitive for many people, this counselor will make sure to learn the best way to initiate it and use it throughout the counseling sessions. Another benefit in utilizing prayer is the trust building of the client for the practitioner so therefore; this author will utilize prayer to promote a great relationship. This author will make sure that the client is confident enough to share their feelings about prayer and spirituality. First and foremost, it will be disclosed in the very beginning that the author is a Christian. After listening to the client and finding his or her comfort level, Spirituality will somehow be introduced in the session whether it is in the form of reading Biblical scriptures or facilitating a prayer. In the past, this author has used prayer with counselees in and after sessions, but now realizes the sensitivity of how to apply it. It has been welcomed by both non-Christians and Christians but the article has shed the light on how detrimental an improper application of Spirituality and prayer can be to the counseling relationship.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Hardys dramatic dialogue Essay Denying the harsh moral codes set upon you can at times improve your material circumstances; however it can reduce you to a situation lower than poverty. Hardys dramatic dialogue The Ruined Maid attempts to portray the injustices and ironies of Victorian morality. Hardy is able to achieve this through his elaborate control over language. The class distinctions and moral codes placed upon women in the Victorian era have a large degree of irony. In the first stanza Hardy introduces two women: an unnamed, impoverished farm maid and a relatively wealthy ruined woman. The fact that the farm maid is unnamed shows her relatively insignificant life in comparison to the ruined woman who is named. The ruined woman (Melia) is said to have acquired fair garments, illustrating her affluence as the adjective fair suggests her clothes were of great beauty. The farm maid also wonders how Melia has come across such prosperi-ty emphasising her newfound wealth. Melia states that she has acquired this wealth as she has been ruined. By crossing the Victorian morality line and selling herself she has been rewarded instead of being looked down upon. In the second stanza Hardy contrasts the two womens lifestyles to illustrate their vast differences. Hardy uses negative diction such as the noun tatters to describe the poverty-stricken woman clothing which contrasts to the description of the wealthier woman in the first stanza. Hardy also contrasts this in the second stanza where Hardy uses positive diction with vibrant connotations such as gay bracelets and bright feathers to again describe the ruined womans clothing. The use of juxtaposition between the poverty of one woman and the relative wealth of Melia emphasises their class differences. The ruined woman, obviously gaining from her denial of normal moral codes, states thats how we dress when we are ruined. This illustrates that all women in her profession wear wealthy clothing, portraying the ironies of Victorian moral rectitude. Restrained in the entrenched Victorian class system with its moral and economic confines women at times have to escape in order to improve their situation. In the third stanza Hardy illustrates the ruined womans original poverty. She is described to have had a home in the barton, illustrating her initial lack of wealth through the use of the noun barton. Melia is said to have in the past used archaic, colloquial language such as thee and thou portraying her earlier impoverishment; only those of the lower classes would have used these words. However Hardy contrasts this with the womans talking which now fits ee for high company, again emphasising her gain from selling herself. Melia says that some polish is gained with ones ruin. The noun polish suggests the woman has gained refinement by becoming ruined, illustrating the potential gains from defying Victorian moral codes. This can also portray the hypocrisy of Victorian society as pure, virginal women are approved of; however happen to live depressing, miserable lives. In the fourth stanza Hardy again contrasts the womans current position with her past one, describing how she used to have paws and a face blue and bleak. The fact that her hands are said to have been paws illustrates the strenuous work she had to endure. The adjective bleak is an example of a synecdoche as it is used to illustrate Meilas former emotions. However she is now said to have little gloves and a delicate cheek portraying her dramatic improvement both in her occupation and emotionally. The last line: we never do work when were ruined emphasises her lack of taxing labour after becoming ruined. Crossing the morality line can at times result in improvements to ones position economically. By defying Victorian morality ones situation is condemned to being lower than the poverty of those who are pure and righteous. In the fifth stanza Hardy again uses negative diction to describe Melias past position. Hardy illustrates that she used to view her life as a hag-ridden dream portraying her past depressive outlook on life due to her previous poverty. She is said to have sigh[ed] and sock[ed] emphasising her negative view on life. However now she know[s] not of melancholy. This shows her emotional improvement as a result of becoming ruined. In the last stanza the farm girl says she wished she was like her former friend and had feathers and a fine sweeping gown. This illustrates her misunderstanding of Melias new profession due to her poverty. She is unable to see through the vivacious fai ade of Melias wealthy clothing in order to see the realities of her occupation. Melia however separates herself from her former friend stating that she is but a raw country girl. The adjective raw again emphasises the girls righteousness and innocence contrasted to the other womans ruined morality. The two women are completely different due to the chasmic nature of the Victorian class distinctions and Melias decision to sell herself. Melias also denies the farm maid of her dreams stating that she cannot quite expect that. Although she wishes she could become wealthy she cant escape the class which she was born into. Melia says that you aint ruined showing that to become rich after being born into the lower classes you must become ruined. However this could also be seen as a warning to the other woman to hold on to her maidenly modesty due to its huge worth in Victorian society. Furthermore Hardy uses the colloquial expression aint to show the reader that the ruined woman hasnt escaped her poor origins. Women of the Victorian times held a very insecure position in society; one which could change dramatically just by defying ironic moral codes. In The Ruined Maid Hardy attempts to show the ironies and injustices place upon women in the Victorian era. He shows that although one may improve their economic situation by defying the moral codes of their society they are condemned to a fate worse than poverty.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Case study: Aging Mind and Memory abstract Hearing loss is one of the most common problems of aging affecting older adults. Hearing loss, in particular happens for many reasons. The purpose of this research is to find the age related causes of decline in cognitive functions and hearing abilities of older adults Research indicates that loss of hearing is a serious condition faced by almost one third of aging adults. Hearing loss also has an impact on the cognitive function. This results in forgetting and memory loss. Hearing aids can help improve the quality of life for aging individuals as it betters the hearing process. Hearing loss has several implications on our lives. Populations worldwide are aging. Modeling techniques are required to reach valid inferences about age effects and age changes. A human brain goes through changes during the ageing process. As the population continues to grow older age and life expectancy increases the certain problems arise. The Multiple problems of ageing are that in older ages minor problems may have a greater psychological impact because of age related reasons. Introduction This research proposal is an attempt to study the effects of Aging on the most complex organ of the human body, the brain and to assess the associations between perceptions of aging and behavior. Hypothesis 20% or less of hearing loss or decline experienced by elderly adults result from injury or chronic disease. Hearing loss is one of the most common problems of aging affecting older adults. Normally from what we see every one in three person whose older than 60 has a hearing problem. These hearing problems can make it harder for the older people to understand the instruction, respond to any kind of warnings, to hear doorbells, phone bells and alarms. This can all be frustrating for the other family members and will make it hard to enjoy talking to friends. Moreover such issues could be embarrassing and dangerous as well. (hearing loss and aging, 2009) Therefore its very important to understand why such problems occur. Hearing loss, in particular happens for many reasons. Mostly many people lose their hearing slowly as they age, a condition which is known as presbycusis. This problems runs in families and reasons for it have not yet been figured. (hearing loss and aging, 2009) At times hearing loss could also be caused by exposure to too much loud noise, a condition known as noise-induced hearing loss. Examples of this kind of hearing loss could be found in many construction workers, musicians, farmers, tree cutters and people in the army. Sometimes these hearing problems can cause ringing sounds in the ears as well. Other than this hearing loss can also be caused by head injuries, virus or bacteria, tumors, certain medicines and heart conditions or stroke. However all these reasons contribute only less than 20% of the causes of hearing and memory losses because in majority these problems along with decline in cognitive functions are significantly a consequence of aging. (hearing loss and aging, 2009) Purpose statement To find the age related causes of decline in cognitive functions and hearing abilities of older adults Primary Research question What are the causes of decline in cognitive functions of the older adults? Other research questions Qs1) aging is the most significant reason why older adults suffer from hearing loss? Qs2) injuries and chronic diseases mostly cause memory loss on older adults? Qs3) older people are less productive because of the sensory losses they suffer from? Qs4) study of gerontology is important to get rid of problems like hearing and memory loss? Objectives The purpose of this research is primarily to find out the most important causes of hearing loss and decline in other cognitive functions in older adults. The research will emphasize also on effects of ageing on psychological and social issues such as Learning, Memory, Reaction time , Intelligence, sexuality, and stress along with certain neurological problems that incur as a result of changes in the brain associated with ageing. The biological and chemical changes taking place in our brain which result in psychological effects have been studied. Methods Research tool The research would be carried out with the help of a Questionnaire including both open ended and close ended questions. Sample populaion The Questionnaire would be filled by randomly selecting 1000 individuals from various localities of the City, with diverse backgrounds and economic situations. By doing so, the sample would be a true representation of the elderly in the whole society and not just a biased one representing a minority. These people would include both males and females and individuals only between the ages of 50 and 70. In order to avoid biasness they will be allowed to anonymously answer the Questionnaires. Where will the research be conducted? Questionnaires would be provided to these individuals at various hotspots for the elderly which include hospitals, golf courts, parks, jogging tracks , shopping centers, workplaces and Old Homes. Also this in turn will allow us to get a diverse sample which would include the elderly from all spheres and conditions of life. Analysis of the data The data obtained from the questionnaire would be weighted prior to the performance of the statistical analysis that shall be carried out so that the results would better reflect the age, gender, marital status and the educational level of the individuals. Thus by dividing our data collected on the basis of gender, marital status, educational status, economical conditions, we would be better able to study the effects of Aging on these individuals and also be able to determine whether any of these elements have a direct correlation with the psychological effects on the brain. Limitations However, every method used to collect research data has a few limitations attached to it thus affecting the Research. Similarly, in our research method used, participants may be unwilling to answer certain questions or may inaccurately answer them. Thus data may not be so accurate. Also they may respond by providing us with biased answers which also in turn affects the quality of our research. Discussion As we grow older, we may grow wiser, but we can also experience memory loss and cognitive slowing that can interfere with our daily routines and impact our personality. Chronological ageing as a frame of reference for the study of developmental phenomena is widely used but not very well understood. Much remains unknown about how normal ageing affects the neural basis of cognition, but recent research on individual differences in the trajectory of ageing effects is helping to distinguish normal from pathological origins of age-related cognitive changes. Two thirds of all people eventually experience someÃ significant loss of mental lucidity and independence as a result of aging. Individuals who are 60 years and older experience significant cognitive declines, including a weaker memory (memory loss or absentmindedness or both), decline in levels of concentration, clarity of thought, focus and judgment with an increase in the onset of several neurological problems like Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and stroke. (W.Browne, 2003) Many problems are due to memory loss in older ages. Some common age related dementia includes:. Recent memory loss. Usually people suffering from age related Dementia forget things, and never remember them. They might ask the same question again and again each time forgetting that the question had already been answered. Difficulty performing familiar tasks. They might perform a task and then forget to perform it or will forget about performing it at all. Problems with language: people in older ages may forget simple words or use wrong words, making it hard to understand what they want. Time and place disorientation. They may forget where they are, where they were supposed to go or where they live. Misplacing things. Patients may put things in the wrong places. Then they cant find them later. Changes in mood. Everyone is moody at times but as people grow older they have faster mood swings, going from calm to tears to anger in just a matter of minutes. Cognitive Functioning e.g., impairments in concentration, distractibility, lack of planning, poor judgment, rapid forgetting, failure to learn. (Andrews, 2009) The community also suffers from the loss as these conditions will have a large amount of social cost. What this research means to: The aging community This research will help the aging community to better understand the problems it faces and also how to get rid of these problems by having an insight on the root causes. Aging individuals tend to ignore the developing loss of hearing and avoid getting it treated or examined at the early stages. If hearing problems are prolonged then it becomes even more difficult to treat them. Research indicates that very few people actually use hearing aids (roughly about 24% of those with hearing loss). 16.7 hearing aid that have been sold remain unused, as indicated by a recent study. Although hearing aids produce a 77% satisfaction rate, yet its usage is quite low. The researchers The researchers would know what aspects they need to study further and what other sort of researches need to be conducted in order to find answers to problems. Furthermore, research on the aging mind necessarily entails an applied orientation; therefore, future research also needs to include more specific focuses on identifying age-relevant knowledge, aging-friendly social and environmental contexts, and aging-rectifying training programs to help old people better allocate and compensate their declining cognitive resources. (Davies, 2004) Older adults Loss of hearing is a serious condition faced by almost one third of aging adults. If precautionary measures are not taken then this condition gets worsened and has serious detrimental effects on the aging individual as well as his/her personality. The most feared aspect of aging is losing mental function. In fact this constant fear directly affects our quality of life. Many individuals often believe that they are losing their mental functions and as a result, they experience a loss in their self-esteem and withdrawal from society and social settings. Relationship of age-related physiological changes and hearing loss As individual ages, certain changes take place within the body that are chemical, biological or physical. In a similar manner the human brain also goes through a structural change which is a process known as ventriculomegaly in which the cerebral ventricles expand. As a result of this some of the connections between the neurons are reduced or become inefficient. This is the reason why these physical changes directly affect the psychological processes in the brain. (Browne, 2003) Hearing loss also has an impact on the cognitive function. A recent Brandeis University study found out that people with mild to serious hearing loss may find it difficult to retain what they have heard because most of their concentration span diverts towards trying to listen what is being said rather than trying to comprehend what is being said. This results in forgetting and memory loss. Physical and psychological problems will make people more dependent on others in their everyday life. They can have an impact on the individuals ability to work or engage himself into any meaningful activity and will negatively affect the social attitude of the person. Creating better support systems In cases like these the support systems help patients live as actively as possible until death. These support systems address the needs of the older aged patients and their families and provide them with necessary counseling. This is done in order to solve all sort of psychological, social or spiritual problems. The goal is to achieve the best quality of life for the individuals and their families. (Davies, 2004) Neuroscience researcher Dr. Arthur Wingfield suggests that individuals who communicate with people with hearing problem should pay special attention to the decline in cognitive function that may be accompanied along with it, and hence should speak more clearly, concisely and pausing after each clause in their sentence. In order to develop a good support system for individuals who face loss of hearing, guidance should be given to avoid feelings of anxiety, passivity, learned helplessness, paranoia, cognitive decline, hopelessness, withdrawal, isolation and depression. With patience, love and care the condition of individuals who suffer from loss of hearing could be made better. Depression may be avoided if such individuals are given company and care. Hearing aids can help improve the quality of life for aging individuals as it betters the hearing process. Due to this the aging individual can develop better social, family and work relationships. The recovery from all these problems will depend on some factors like the severity of the condition, age, health status , personality and the availability of support services. Social attitudes towards memory loss/decline Hearing loss has several implications on our lives. Those aging individuals who face this condition cannot converse well and hence leads to social cut off. It also causes embarrassment, feeling of isolation and loneliness. After Arthrisis and hypertention, hearing loss is the third most prevalent disabling condition. A lot of aging individuals do not take loss of hearing seriously, although it can have serious implications on their lives. The quality of life of people who have to face loss of hearing deteriorates and their involvements and socializing reduces along with loss of confidence. They feel embarrassed and hence avoid conversation. Conclusion Populations worldwide are aging. True experimental work on aging is not possible because age levels cannot be manipulated. Sophisticated theoretical frameworks and modeling techniques are required to reach valid inferences about age effects and age changes. Aging naturally causes changes in physical, cognitive, and social capabilities of a person. Age related changes like declining strength and difficulty in remembering is experienced as a kind of loss. Such Experiences of loss negatively affect health however some people maintain a positive health attitude instead which gives rise to a variety of these experiences. A positive health attitude is associated with persistent beliefs and behaviors. So even in older ages people can maintain their health if their beliefs are positive and they find themselves less susceptible to diseases. Optimism in an individuals personality and people with a perceived control of life events are those aspects of the personality which help in maintaining good physical health as well. (Carroll Estes, 2009) The Multiple problems of ageing are that in older ages minor problems may have a greater psychological impact. Older people suffer from additional problems of mental impairment, economic hardship and social isolation which can cause distress and other the cumulative effect of which could be greater than any disease. How are the families and community being affected? Researchers are involved in finding ways to keep our brains young so as to prevent it from ageing and to delay the onset of disease that follows from it as a result. A very well known age related disease is Alzheimer. This disease and other age related dementia can cause many problems for the individuals and their families. Families of people with neurological conditions suffer from considerable emotional distress and burden, which can have an impact on their own mental health. A consequence would be Feelings of grief, anger, frustration and guilt which will eventually lead to depression. In fact family and community stress is associated more with a persons alterations to personality and interpersonal behavior. It results in conflicts and frustration. As more people survive into old age they also begin to suffer chronic illnesses and need some form of help from their families and people around.(Rama K. Jayanti, 2004) Importance of this research The research on age related problems of personality and cognitive function can help in raising awareness of the implications that an aging population can have for the society. More research needs to be conducted and investment needs to be done for the care and treatment of people with such illnesses. (Carroll Estes, Maggie Kuhn: social theorist of radical gerontology, 2009). Ageing and its effects on the psychological functioning of a person will influence his ability to mix in with the community, access services like treatment, rehabilitation and education, create problems in family and social relationships, ability to get any emotional support from people and develop a positive quality of life. (Committee, 2005) Therefore, with the help of this research the impacts of aging can properly be understood which help the individuals, their families, communities and the caregivers in better understanding all these problems. More solutions could also be found and better support services caan be created withmore awareness. Moreover, new aspects of research that has stillnot been conducted can be discovered. literature review There are several different types of hearing loss, it may be very serious such as significant decline in hearing capability or it may be quite mediocre which is a slight decline in hearing capacity. Biologically hearing loss is classified into Presbycusis, Sensorineural and Tinnitus. Presbycusis, people who have this type of hearing loss find it difficult to hear what others are saying and cannot stand loud noises. It has age related causes. (hearing loss and aging, 2009) Sensorineural hearing loss is a type of hearing loss that results from damage to different tissues of the inner ear. People with tinnitus may hear different kinds of loud noises inside their ears, such as ringing, roaring, and screaming etc. Tinnitus may be caused by loud noise, hearing loss, certain medicines, and other health problems, such as allergies and problems in the heart and blood vessels. The causes of this unusual loud noises being felt inside the ears is unknown. According to a study by National Council on Aging (2008), aided hearing loss improves the quality of life. (hearing loss and aging, 2009) Early diagnosis is extremely important to slow down or curb the hearing loss. If it is caused by some drug or allergy then that may also be detected. A survey in 2006 by Marke Trak found that nearly 32 million American (10% of the total population) have hearing loss. The survey stated, The greatest increase is among baby boomers due to noise exposure and among those who are age 75 and older, due to aging. A research by Dr Robert D Frisina (Ph.D.), an expert on age related hearing loss, and his team at the International Center for Hearing and Speech Research (ICHSR) in Rochester, NY, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that feedback and timing that influence the older persons ability to distinguish speech sounds. (Mares-Perlman JA, 1998) He explains that, There are many people with good inner ears who just dont hear well. The human brain starts to develop problems with filtering, sorting and making sense of the massive information flowing in through sensations, when an individual reaches the age of 40s or 50s. Dr Frisina has noticed this change in him as well as in other aging individuals he counsels. (Mares-Perlman JA, 1998) The slow processing of sensations in the brain due to aging, reflect the cause why so many older adults experience speech discrimination difficulties in noisy situations. Older adults with normal hearing also face the same circumstance. There are a lot of books and studies which tell us that as a person grows older certain personality disorders develop. These Personality disorders are reflected in their interpersonal skills also that older people tend to give unexpected responses to clinical treatment. Patients with such personality disorders are often described in as difficult. (Committee, 2005) A human brain goes through changes during the ageing process. As a person grows older every organ of his body deteriorates and same is the case with the human brain. These changes and deteriorating factors in this organ impact the personality of the individual as a whole because it is the most sensitive and crucial part of the human body. The cognitive declines usually associated with aging are observed in the processing speed and reactionÃ times, Cognitive control, Executive functions and Memory. The most frequent personality disorders among the old age people are paranoid, schizoid and self defeating disorders. There are also treatments of these disorders. (Jason.L.Powell, 2004) According to the recent studies the older people as compared to the youth are becoming more economically and demographically attractive. However, there are costs of an ageing population that the society bears as a whole. (Andrews, 2009) Our society nowadays discriminates the elderly and they are being ill treated. However Primitive agrarian cultures very existence depended upon the knowledge earned from experience, valued their elders, but even they were o moved to killing the non productive members of society because of harsh conditions of subsistence living. (Carroll Estes, 2009) As the population continues to grow older age and life expectancy increases. As a result continued awareness, study and research concerning the psychology of adult development and aging is becoming highly important. The journal tells about the importance of building support systems with awareness programs. (W.Browne, 2003) appendix QUESTIONNAIRE Demographics: Age: Gender: Marital status: Education level: QUESTIONS: Question 1 Aging is the most significant reason why older adults suffer from hearing loss? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Question 2 Injuries and chronic diseases mostly cause memory loss on older adults? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Question 3 Older people are less productive because of the sensory losses they suffer from? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Question 4 Study of gerontology is important to get rid of problems like hearing and memory loss? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Question 5 Building of better support systems can lessen the costs of aging suffered by the individual? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree Question 6 Age related physiological changes are a cause of alterations in personality of older adults? A) Strongly agree b) agree c) not sure d) disagree e) Strongly disagree
Monday, August 19, 2019
Violence is a social problem that increases over the years. Violence is not so much shown in magazines and books as it is on television and the media. This does not mean that violence on television is the only source for aggressive or violent behavior, but it is a significant contributor. Children can also pick up violence from a parent or guardian at an early age. Peers are important in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It has been psychologically proven that males are more aggressive than females. Therefore, if a childÃ¢â¬â¢s peers are being aggressive, their actions tend to be imitated. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã American children watch an average of three to four hours of television daily, which can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior. Hundreds of studies of the effects of media violence on children have found that children may gradually accept violence as a way to solve problems, imitate the violence they observe on television and identify with certain characters, victims or victimizers. Parents can protect their children from excessive television violence by paying attention to the programs their children are watching and restricting them from shows known to be violent, pointing out what is wrong with the program. Another solution to this problem is to explain that the actor has not actually been hurt or killed and such violence in real life results in pain or death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Children are not born understanding the difference ... Violence As A Social Problem Essay -- essays research papers Violence is a social problem that increases over the years. Violence is not so much shown in magazines and books as it is on television and the media. This does not mean that violence on television is the only source for aggressive or violent behavior, but it is a significant contributor. Children can also pick up violence from a parent or guardian at an early age. Peers are important in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It has been psychologically proven that males are more aggressive than females. Therefore, if a childÃ¢â¬â¢s peers are being aggressive, their actions tend to be imitated. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã American children watch an average of three to four hours of television daily, which can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior. Hundreds of studies of the effects of media violence on children have found that children may gradually accept violence as a way to solve problems, imitate the violence they observe on television and identify with certain characters, victims or victimizers. Parents can protect their children from excessive television violence by paying attention to the programs their children are watching and restricting them from shows known to be violent, pointing out what is wrong with the program. Another solution to this problem is to explain that the actor has not actually been hurt or killed and such violence in real life results in pain or death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Children are not born understanding the difference ...
The Bluest Eye is a brilliantly written novel revealing the fictional trauma of an eleven-year-old black girl named Pecola Breedlove. This story takes place in the town of Lorain, Ohio during the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. It is told from the perspective of a young girl named Claudia MacTeer. She and her sister, Frieda, become witness to the terrible plights Pecola is unintentionally put through. Pecola chooses to hide from her disabling life behind her clouded dream of possessing the ever so cherished Ã¢â¬Å"bluest of eyesÃ¢â¬ . The BreedloveÃ¢â¬â¢s constant bickering and ever growing poverty contributes to the emotional downfall of this little girl. PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s misery is obtained through the touch of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand and the voice of her communityÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle with racial separation, anger, and ignorance. Her innocence is harshly ripped from her grasp as her father rapes her limp existence. The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s anger with itÃ¢â¬â¢s own insecurities is taken out on thi s poor, ugly, black, non-ideal, young girl. She shields herself from this sorrow behind her obsessive plea for blue eyes. But her eyes do not replace the pain of carrying her fleeing fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s baby. Nor do they protect her from the shady eyes of her neighbors. Though this book discuses negative and disturbing situations, it teaches a very positive lesson. The theme of The Bluest Eye is that of depending on outside influences to become aware of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own beauty and to fabricate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own self image can be extremely damaging. I feel that Toni Morrison showed this through each of her characters especially the obvious, Pecola Breedlove. One incident, for example, is when Claudia, Frieda, Pecola, and Maureen Peal, a well-loved Ã¢â¬Å"beautyÃ¢â¬ of Lorain, are walking home from school. As the girls saunter down the street, they begin to bicker. The conversation ends with Maureen stomping away and establishing the fact that she is indeed Ã¢â¬Å"cuteÃ¢â¬ . Claudia then thinks to herself, Ã¢â¬Å"If she was cute--and if anything could be believed, she was--then we were not. And what did that mean? We were lesser. Nicer, brighter, but still lesser. Dolls we could destroy, but we could not destroy the honey voices of parents and aunts, the obedience in the eyes of our peers, the slippery light in the eyes of our teachers when they encouraged the Maureen Peals of the world. What was the secret? What did we lack? Why was it important? And so what?. . . And all the time we knew that Maureen Peal was not the Enemy and not worthy of such intense hatred.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn No one who has read the novel Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain can deny not seeing the faults of the civilized world that Twain so critically satires. This element of the novel plays the perfect backdrop to the thing Twain uses to compare civilization with: The ideal way of living. Every time the main characters Huck and Jim are away from the influences of the civilized world, TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the ideal way of living reveals itself to the reader. By observing the things that occur when Huck and Jim are in the influences of the civilized world and when they are not, we can see the vast differences that lie between these two elements. The first glimpse that we get of the civilized world in HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s time comes to us as early as the first chapter. Huck describes to the reader how he is getting along in civilization. He tells us things about society that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t yet understand, like how the Widow forbids him to smoke yet she uses tobacco herself. Twain establishes the hypocrisy of civilization early on in the novel to give the reader insight on the differences between the Ã¢â¬Å"properÃ¢â¬ ways of nineteenth century society and the Ã¢â¬Å"improperÃ¢â¬ behavior that Huck is accustomed to dealing with. This insight that Twain gives to the reader is further expanded with the introduction of HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s Pap into the story. After leaving Huck for a little over a year, Pap comes back for Huck, figuring he may have something to gai... Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn Essay example -- Mark Twain Huck Finn Es Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn No one who has read the novel Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain can deny not seeing the faults of the civilized world that Twain so critically satires. This element of the novel plays the perfect backdrop to the thing Twain uses to compare civilization with: The ideal way of living. Every time the main characters Huck and Jim are away from the influences of the civilized world, TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the ideal way of living reveals itself to the reader. By observing the things that occur when Huck and Jim are in the influences of the civilized world and when they are not, we can see the vast differences that lie between these two elements. The first glimpse that we get of the civilized world in HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s time comes to us as early as the first chapter. Huck describes to the reader how he is getting along in civilization. He tells us things about society that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t yet understand, like how the Widow forbids him to smoke yet she uses tobacco herself. Twain establishes the hypocrisy of civilization early on in the novel to give the reader insight on the differences between the Ã¢â¬Å"properÃ¢â¬ ways of nineteenth century society and the Ã¢â¬Å"improperÃ¢â¬ behavior that Huck is accustomed to dealing with. This insight that Twain gives to the reader is further expanded with the introduction of HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s Pap into the story. After leaving Huck for a little over a year, Pap comes back for Huck, figuring he may have something to gai...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Explore the differences between working with individuals and working with groups in the community context
When looking at community work firstly one must try ad define what is meant when talking about the community. Community can have many different meaning and due to this can be very hard to find one answer to help us to understand the word community. According to the dictionary community is Ã¢â¬Ëa group of people living in one place, the public in general' ( Collins pocket dictionary, Collins, 1982) although this offers a place to start it doesn't help us to understand community it's self. Both community and youth work both have totally different aims and have changed over the years. Youth work traditionally started as a form of informal education as a way of getting children involved with different activities although now it is becoming more and more formal. It started of as a collective idea where young people in the same social background could meet and the youth workers could work with them around these issues. Ultimately until very recently youth workers just helped the youth to over come their problems. Now in the modern society it is moving much more towards formal education where the youth workers take an active role on the administrating of the education of the youth. Working with individuals compared to groups of the community is totally different and throws up totally different problems. I'm going to look at the advantages of both first and then apply them to some common community issues to see which works best when put into perspective. Individual work usually involves working on a one to one basis with some one either simply talking about issues that worry them or offering help with a problem that they have. A huge advantage of working one to one is the fact that you can offer confidentiality to that person who has approached you. Due to this it enables the person the open up a lot more as they know that it isn't going to be over heard by any other person. Working on this basis also allows much more sensitive issues to be addressed, like the issues of the home background. By working one to one it enables you to get a lot more information out of the individual that maybe they are ashamed to address in public. By using this way of helping people you can form strong bonds between you and the person who you are helping and trust can be built up from here. Eventually becoming a friend of the person and being seen less as a helper but more of an equal, this type of relationship can also a big help when dealing with emotional problems. Since the worker becomes more of an equal rather than a helper it can be addressed in a more relaxed way and hopefully be more beneficial to the individual. Although individual work has many strengths it doesn't go without its weaknesses. By just having a one to one session the person does not have the social contact with they may need and attain by talking it though as a group. It also fails to let the individual know that they are not the only one with the problem that they have. By addressing it as a group the whole group can share their feeling on the issue but one a one to one basis the person becomes very self reliant on that issue and can some times fail to notice tat they aren't the only ones suffering form that problem. Community workers only a have small money pots. By offering one to one help for everyone with a problem would be stupid. Individual sessions take up more time than group work and therefore allow the money that would be spent on the workers hours to be spent on other things like a project for raising awareness of sexual health. One aim of community work is to gain a sense of belonging and togetherness within that chosen area. By address each problem on a one to one basis it defeats the problem. Surely by addressing the problem as a group it would bring about a sense of understanding. By working with just individual people there is always the problem with the fact that they could become attached to that person or even dependant on you, which ideally should not happen as they should be learning to trust their peer group not an outsider. Although it may not happen on a regular basis it is still a problem of one on one interview. Group work although at first many seem a good idea has its down falls as well. Originally used on mass by the uniformed organisations, it offers a way of getting to know each other in a relaxed environment. Using group worked in the community has big advantages. Since community can mean togetherness by addressing a problem as a group it allows everyone to be come involed. Take for example crime. By working as group to address it, it is both easier and
Friday, August 16, 2019
Throughout the last few chapters we have been reading, the perspective of our monster has shifted tremendously. At first, we viewed the creature as frightening and menacing. As the story continues, we base our view on the monster due to VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive behavior towards the creature, making us pity the poor monster as he has done nothing wrong; he is just lost in a new world, possibly experiencing culture shock. Now the creature is venturing out into the world, interacting with people other than Victor. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦for I never ventured abroad during daylight, fearful of meeting with the same treatment I had formerly endured in the first village which I enteredÃ¢â¬ (106). After the monster encounters humans, people give the same reaction: fear. The monster comes baring no harm, but in fright, the citizens of the village run from him, scared of what might happen to them. This starts his increasing grudge against the humans. First, Victor rejects his appearance, oblivious to the being on the inside, now, complete strangers are neglecting him. His temper in steadily growing. Ã¢â¬Å"Was man, indeed, at once so powerful, so virtuous and magnificent, yet so vicious and base?Ã¢â¬ (107). After learning more history from his protectors, the creature is now questioning the characteristic change in man over the course of time. Back then, a creature of his nature might have been accepted, but now he is feared for his sole appearance. These events capture the imbalance in the golden mean because now the monster, once emotionally stable with his existence, is getting too angry and furious with the human race. The monster is now resembling Victor. Although he might not notice it, the monster is showing a strong connection between him and his creator through his actions. Both are seeking revenge and acting out through their anger. Now that the monster has built up the courage to confront the old blind man, by the name of De Lacy, he waits until Felix, Agatha, and Safie have left. He does not want to frighten them. Unfortunately, as he tries to speak with De Lacy, Felix and the others return. Upon Agatha fainting, and Safie running out of fear, Ã¢â¬Å"Felix darted forward, and with supernatural force tore me from this father, whose knees I cung; in a transport of fry, he dashed me to the ground and struck me violently with a stickÃ¢â¬ (123-124). The creature viewed the family and his own: his protectors. If they acted that way towards him, surely everyone else would too. Now, the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s revenge only increased. Soon enough, the creature is going to snap and lose control of his emotions. There is still some decency inside of the monster though. After witnessing an innocent girl downing, he saves her, despite his arising hate for humans. As a man comes and thinks that the monster is harming the girl, he shoots the creature, who had only tried to help. Ã¢â¬Å"The feelings of kindness and gentleness which I had entertained but a few moments before gave place to hellish rage and gnashing of teeth. Inflamed by pain, I vowed eternal hatred and vengeance to all mankindÃ¢â¬ (130). The spark inside of the monster triggers and rage flows through his body. Anger and revenge seep in and he now despises all human beings. The creature has terminated all tolerance for human beings, due to the everlasting hate he obtains from creatures so very similar to him. The golden mean has been violated extensively through the mistreatment of this poor creature. He has been nothing but joyous towards mankind, but in return he receives hate and pain, literally. The monster has no more patience or hope for the overturning emotions from humans. This eventually develops the motive for WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, confessing to Victor the deviant act of not only the murder, but also of framing Justine.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Spring, which is on a private deer-hunting ranch, to the bottling plant. Locals are questioning whom the water Nestle is pumping belongs to. The argument is that although Nestle owns the land, the water is a public resource. Within the Utilitarian theory, in the eyes of the Nestle Company, their actions can be deemed ethical for the fact that the bottling plant has created a substantial amount of jobs for the locals. It was stated that the 262 million gallons of water being pumped are less than one percent of the annual charge rate of the local watershed.The sacrifice of a small percentage of the public body of water to create jobs and bottled water is ethical within the utilitarian theory. In Robert Nick's entitlement theory, you are entitled to as much property as you want, as long as it was acquired the right way. Sanctuary Springs is viewed as a public source of water. Which means Nestle is completely entitled to use the water, whether that means drinking it or pumping it to a bo ttling plant. Nestles actions are completely ethical within Nick's theory.Under John Rails theory of ethics, Nestles actions are ethical as well. Rails theory states that the action must benefit the weakest members of society. The company has built bottling plant that employs about a hundred people. Town ship supervisor Maxine McClellan is has stated Ã¢â¬Å"This is probably the best project we've ever brought into Mascots CountyÃ¢â¬ ¦ A diversified economy where our kids don't have to move away to find jobs.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
The constant North South divide over enforcement of international environmental law plagues the operationalisation of many international treaties. Most developing countries are caught in a cleft stick. Whilst understanding the need for environmental action, they also require increasing industrial activity for achieving economic growth and poverty alleviation objectives, activities that entail definite enhancements in greenhouse emission. They are additionally constrained by their lack of resources and do not wish to divert what is available from developmental needs. Many developing countries also suffer from lack of necessary infrastructure and underdeveloped legal and judicial systems to be able to carry out treaty obligations in an organised and systemic manner. (Bell & Russell, 2002) Whilst many international agreements are worded to ensure their legal binding on signatory nations, these treaties do not become enforceable within a country until their enactment into domestic law is complete. Australia, for example, has signed on the Montreal Protocol and the World Heritage Convention and carried out appropriate domestic legislation. Apart from taking these legislative measures, the nation has enacted several laws for environmental regulation. (Lyster, 2004) The Environment protection and Biodiversity Act, 1999, is a key legislation that gives effect to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s international law obligations. Numerous other enactments like the amended Fisheries Management Act, 1991, The Maritime Legislation Amendment (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Act, 2006, the Protection of the Sea (Harmful Anti-fouling Systems) Act 2006 also work towards enhancing environmental protection and bringing the domestic legal system in line with its international treaty obligations. (Australian Legal Information Institute, 2007) Domestic enactment of new laws, (as well as amendment of existing laws) is necessary because it makes the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment towards international environmental laws concrete and their provisions enforceable. In the absence of specific domestic legislation little action can be taken against environmental offenders and controlling environmental degradation becomes well nigh impossible. Compared to the Australian approach, which involves legal enactment and resolute enforcement of international law obligations, the actions adopted by a developing country like Bangladesh appear to be significantly inadequate. The country, (which became independent only in 1971), drafted a broad ranging environmental policy in 1991 but is still to enact any of its major features into law even though sixteen years have passed since. Factors like internal strife, lack of developed legal systems, and scarce resources, have prevented the country from moving forward on environmental action. Whilst economies like India and South Africa have been able to make significant progress on the environmental front, many developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America share BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and are thus unable or unwilling to abide by international environmental law obligations. (Mastny & French, 2002) 3. Conclusion The inherent weaknesses in rules of international diplomacy render many environmental treaties practically pointless. Seeing the abject non implementation of most environmental treaties by developing nations, international organisations are seeking new ways to toughen these agreements. While most such laws impose few penalties, peer pressure is emerging as a potent tool for this purpose. Some treaties also ask nations to report on the progress of promises made at the time of agreement. Beyond persuasion and embarrassment, trade incentives also help in securing compliance. Members of the Montreal Protocol, for example, are forbidden to purchase CFCs or products containing them from nations that have not agreed to the treaty, a condition that has led many nations to join the treaty and take action to reduce ozone depletion. (Bell & Russell, 2002) International agencies, sympathetic nations and NGOs can encourage soft laws through funding decisions and public campaigns. Soft laws tend to establish certain expectations-or create an international mindset-that can then form the basis for more permanent agreements. A large part of the inability of developing nations to act on accord occurs because of their poverty and constrained resources. Redressing this imbalance will depend largely on providing financial and technical assistance to developing nations-and ensuring that funds are well spent. References ASEAN Ministers Okay Agreement on Environmental Laws. (2006, November 12). Manila Bulletin, p. NA. Australian Legal Information Institute, 2007, Retrieved September 25, 2007 from www. austlii. edu. au Barrett, S. (2005). Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.