Thursday, March 19, 2020

Anthem textual evidence Essays - Anthem, Ayn Rand, Free Essays

Anthem textual evidence Essays - Anthem, Ayn Rand, Free Essays One way that equality 7-2521 is demonstrating the quote I think therefore, I am by Rene Descartes is that he thinks and acts differently than the other people in his society is by the way he feels and thinks about Liberty 5-3000 or Golden One. In chapter 2 page 42 it states, We had broken so many laws, and today broken one more. Today, we spoke to the Golden One. This statement shows that no matter what anyone else does or thinks he was willing to break laws just to talk to the Golden One. This proves that he is different from the other people in the society. Our society in the 21st century is somewhat similar to the society of the future in Ayn Rands novel Anthem. We have some of the same principals and morals that they have. A couple of examples are cliques or groups that we have everywhere. Such as in school, at work, at home and around our lives. In Anthem there are groups of jobs such as doctor, street sweeper, and teacher. We have jobs and we refer ourselves by our rank in that job. In Anthem their society they are taught to think as many and not as an individual. We teach young children to share and to be good to the group and that the good of the group comes before the good of one. For example, we tell kids to help an old lady cross the street. That isnt looking out for yourself. However, this may not necessarily be a bad thing though it is in a certain context such as in Anthems society. Our society is not at all perfect, but perfection cannot become so without conformity.

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Write Effective Letters to Congress

How to Write Effective Letters to Congress People who think members of the U.S. Congress pay little or no attention to constituent mail are just plain wrong. Concise, well thought out personal letters are one of the most effective ways Americans have of influencing the lawmakers they elect.   Members of Congress get hundreds of letters and emails every day, so you will want your letter stand out. Whether you choose to use the U.S. Postal Service or email, here are some tips that will help you write a letter to Congress that has an impact. Think Locally Its usually best to send letters to the representative from your local congressional district or the senators from your state. Your vote helps elect them- or not- and that fact alone carries a lot of weight. It also helps personalize your letter. Sending the same cookie-cutter message to every member of Congress may grab attention but rarely much consideration. Its also a good idea to think about the effectiveness of all of your communication options. For instance, a face-to-face meeting at an event, town hall, or the representatives local office can often leave the biggest impression. That is not always an option though. Your next best bet for expressing your opinion is a formal letter, then a phone call to their office. While email is convenient and quick, it may not have the same influence as the other, more traditional, routes. Finding Your Legislators Address There are a few ways that you can find the addresses of all of your representatives in Congress. The U.S. Senate is easy because each state has two Senators. Senate.gov has an easy to navigate directory of all current Senators. You will find links to their website, their email and phone number, as well as the address to their office in Washington D.C. The House of Representatives is a little trickier because you need to search for the person representing your particular district within the state. The easiest way to do so is to type in your zip code under Find Your Representative at House.gov. This will narrow down your options but you may need to refine it based on your physical address because zip codes and Congressional districts do not coincide. In both houses of Congress, the representatives official website will also have all the contact information you need. This includes the locations of their local offices. Keep Your Letter Simple Your letter will be more effective if you address a single topic or issue rather than a variety of issues you may feel passionate about. Typed, one-page letters are best. Many Political Action Committees (PACs)  recommend a three-paragraph letter structured like this: Say why you are writing and who you are. List your credentials and state that you are a constituent. It also doesnt hurt to mention if you voted for or donated to them. If you want a response, you must include your name and address, even when using email.Provide more detail. Be factual and not emotional. Provide specific rather than general information about how the topic affects you and others. If a certain bill is involved, cite the correct title or number whenever possible.Close by requesting the action you want to be taken. It might be a vote for or against a bill, a change in general policy, or some other action, but be specific. The best letters are courteous, to the point, and include specific supporting examples. Identifying Legislation Members of Congress have a lot of items on their agendas, so its best to be as specific as possible regarding your issue. When writing about a particular bill or piece of legislation, include the official number so they know exactly what youre referring to (it also helps your credibility). If you need help in finding the number of a bill, use the  Thomas Legislative Information System. Cite these  legislation  identifiers: House Bills:  H.R._____House Resolutions:  H.RES._____House Joint Resolutions:  H.J.RES._____Senate Bills:  S._____Senate Resolutions:  S.RES._____Senate Joint Resolutions:  S.J.RES._____ Addressing Members of Congress There is also a formal way to address members of Congress. Use these headers to begin your letter, filling in the appropriate name and addresses for your Congressperson. Also, its best to include the header in an email message. To Your Senator: The Honorable (full name)(room #) (name) Senate Office BuildingUnited States SenateWashington, DC 20510Dear Senator (last name): To Your Representative: The Honorable (full name)(room #) (name) House Office BuildingUnited States House of RepresentativesWashington, DC 20515Dear Representative (last name): Contact the U.S. Supreme Court The Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court do not have email addresses, but they do read letters from citizens. You can mail letters using the address found on the SupremeCourt.gov website. Key Things to Remember Here are some key things you should always and never do when writing to your elected representatives. Be courteous and respectful without gushing.Clearly and simply state the purpose of your letter. If its about a certain bill, identify it correctly.  Say who you are. Anonymous letters go nowhere. Even in email, include your correct name, address, phone number and email address. If you dont include at least your name and address, you will not get a response.State any professional credentials or personal experience you may have, especially those pertaining to the subject of your letter.Keep your letter short- one page is best.Use specific examples or evidence to support your position.State what it is you want to be done or recommend a course of action.Thank the member for taking the time to read your letter. What Not to Do Just because they represent the voters does not mean that members of Congress are subject to abuse or belittlement. As impassioned as you may be about an issue, your letter will be more effective if its written from a calm, logical perspective. If youre angry about something, write your letter then edit the next day to ensure youre conveying a courteous, professional tone. Also, make sure to avoid these pitfalls. Do not use vulgarity, profanity, or threats. The first two are just plain rude and the third one can get you a visit from the Secret Service. Simply stated, dont let your passion get in the way of making your point. Do not fail to include your name and address, even in email letters. Many representatives prioritize comments from their constituents and a letter in the mail may be the only way you receive a response. Do not demand a response. You may not get one no matter what and a demand is simply another rude gesture that does little for your case. Do not use boilerplate text. Many grassroots organizations will send out a prepared text to people interested in their issue, but try not to simply copy and paste this into your letter. Use it as a guide to help you make the point and write the letter in your own words with your personal perspective. Getting thousands of letters that say the exact same thing can diminish the impact.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

International and comparative criminal justice Essay

International and comparative criminal justice - Essay Example This is the way things should be. It is unacceptable for the police to contaminate evidence or obtain it through duress. However, its actual exclusion should rest at the discretion of a judge. This is the correct law and is followed in many common law jurisdictions, while it is less prevalent in civil law jurisdictions. In the course of this essay the rationale for this rule will be examined as will a number of cases and statutes relating to it. It is first important to discuss context. Crime has been an unfortunate aspect of human existence from the beginning of time. Each civilization and country has had to determine a method for dealing with it within their own moral vision. Different approaches to dealing with crime come from different values systems. Everyone is different and believes in different things. For people that believe a criminal is a product of his environment and is not personally responsible for committing of crime, it is likely that resources will be used on rehabi litation and treatment. Imprisonment will play a less important role. But for those who believe individuals are responsible for the things that they do and that if they intend to commit crimes they should be punished, the emphasis is likely to be on punishing or detaining the criminal. These different values play a role in determining how evidence is excluded. These two ways of dealing with crime can be broken up into two models. One will be likely to exclude contaminated evidence in order to preserve the human rights of the criminal, the second model would be much less likely to exclude evidence1. The first is the famous due process model present in most developed countries. The main idea of this model is that an individual should not be deprived of their human rights, even if it is clear that he or she has committed a terrible crime. To put someone in prison is to take away the criminal’s right to liberty. That is a very serious thing. The process must be scrutinized to ens ure that everything is done by the book. At its heart the due process model is the idea that the system would rather see ten guilty people go free than one innocent person in prison. The result of this model is many hours of painstaking work checking evidence and a long time-line of the court case moving slowly through the system. Because, historically, the legal system railroaded individuals by planting false evidence and by abusing human rights, we must be very careful when examining evidence. Permitting contaminated evidence into the legal system would encourage law enforcement officers to commit illicit acts. The due process model would strongly argue to exclude evidence obtained in the course of an abuse of human rights. The second way of looking at criminal justice regarding evidence is the crime control model. This model puts a high value on locking up guilty people. Its aim is to protect society and it tries to do this by detaining as many people as it can as quickly as it c an. Typically, in this model more money is spent on policing and deterring and prosecuting criminals as quickly as possible so that the police and prosecutors can start again quickly on the next group of criminals. If it happens that an innocent person is

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Ethical issues - New centry financial corporation Case Study

Ethical issues - New centry financial corporation - Case Study Example These decisions prompted the stakeholders of the company to quit thus leading to its bankruptcy. It is notable that the ethical issues associated with New Century Financial Corporation were damaging to various groups of people in the subprime mortgage industry. The groups included mortgagors, investment banks, and mortgage brokers, rating agencies, lenders and investors (Palepu, Srinivasan & Sesia, 2009). The low quality of loans that the company offered affected the Mortgagors (borrowers). Investment banks realized massive losses from the money they had invested by offering New Century Financial Corporation mortgages. Mortgage brokers also made losses by conducting business with the corporation. Lenders and investors, likewise, realized massive losses due to New Century Financial Corporations misuse of their funds. By 2005, the subprime market was already experiencing advancement both in technology and loan quality. However, New Century Financial Corporations management failed to adapt to these changes. Instead, the companys performance continued to deteriorate due to a poor management. Most of the decisions New Century Financial undertook based on efficiency. The company ensured that the distribution of its securities to investors was favorable. It also terminated loan applications for efficiency due to the withdrawal of its lenders. The companys decisions and operations were associated with various ethical issues. First, it was unethical for New Century Financial Corporation to lack proper documentation of its operations. Proper documentation would enable the company to keep perfect records. Secondly, the corporation had an ethical issue in the valuation of the loans it was selling. For instance, the management was unable to account for purchase of its mortgage loan reserves. Next, the loan quality offered by New Century Financial Corporation was an ethical issue. The company

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Metamorphosis of Johnny Tremain :: Tremain

The Metamorphosis of Johnny Tremain Johnny Tremain is like a butterfly; he went through a transformation. Johnny Tremain is a book by Esther Forbes about a crippled boy during the American Revolution and the events he endures. Johnny Tremain was a very dynamic character because people and events affected him. People change main characters in many books. Johnny Tremain is no exception. In Johnny's case it was the Lyte and the Lapham families. Both the Lapham family and the Lyte family probably did not mean to change Johnny, but they did. Johnny was orphaned after his mother died but was able to stay in the Lapham's house and to be an apprentice to Mr. Lapham, an elderly silver smith who educated Johnny in this art. He was always Mr. Lapham's favorite because Johnny was the finest apprentice out of the three that were there until Dove, one of the apprentices, passed Johnny a cracked crucible. Johnny's thumb then got grown into his palm when he healed. After the injury, Mr. Lapham and the whole family found Johnny useless and queer (because of his thumb). " `Don't touch me! Don't touch me with that dreadful hand!' Issanah squealed." After then Johnny grasped the fact that he went from the top to the bottom in a matter of days. It taught him that nothing is forever. Furthermore, M rs. Lapham a widowed mother of four, was probably the cruelest Lapham of all, after he got crippled. She told him that he was only good for picking rags. She also virtually shooed Johnny out of the house. This made Johnny go find a better life outside of the Lapham's shop. It also taught him to be independent. There is usually more than one family that changes a dynamic character like Johnny. The Lyte family also helped Johnny in his transformation. The Lyte's are Johnny's rich relatives that claim they are not related to Johnny. Johnny has a silver cup to prove his relation, but the Lytes still deny any relation to Johnny and claim that he stole the cup from them. When Johnny was first looking for a job, he thought he could go to the Lytes and ask for some money.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Week Five Assignment

This type of entity will provide the control of a sole proprietorship while placing liability on the business rather than the individual. Fireworks have the potential to be dangerous, causing serious damage to both people ND property. The potential for liability associated with the use and/or manufacture of fireworks is unavoidable. â€Å"Any one of the following defects may expose the man effectuate to liability for injuries that are caused by their product: design defect, manufacturing defect and defect in marketing,† (McLaughlin, & Laurite, 2014).Liabilities associated with these defects include intentional torts, negligence and strict liability. The first step to avoiding an attack on personal assets is relocating operations to an area zoned for the manufacture of fireworks. No matter what the entity, the manufacture of explosives in a residential area will enable a liability protection to be pierced. An intentional tort will occur when the manufacturer sells a product tha t he knows is defective or dangerous of which injuries are certain to occur. In such cases, ACME has a duty to warn the consumer of potential harm.If ACME fails to provide warnings or recalls on its products, it can be held liable for battery to anyone injured by its products. According to a 1903 product liability case, a company is liable for failing to notify the buyer that the product is potentially dangerous, is effective, or negligence in the manufacture or sale of a dangerous product. See House v. J. I. Case Threshing Mach. Co. , 120 F. 865 (8th Cirri. 1903). Should a mishap occur during the manufacture, sale or storage; a sole proprietor will be liable for any and all property damage incurred to both himself and/or his neighbors.With a sole proprietorship there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business thus, he is at risk of losing personal assets in a lawsuit against the business. Should injury, death, or damage to property occur from intentionally manufactu ring or selling a ungenerous product, both the manufacturer and suppliers can be sued for unintentional injuries. This risk extends beyond the manufacture and supply of the fireworks; it also includes care in design and use. For instance, should a consumer purchase defective ACME Fireworks from a retailer and sustain injury to him and others, ACME can be sued.See Boeing Airplane Co. V. Brown, 291 F. Ad 310 (9th Cirri. 1961). â€Å"Strict liability in tort arises when someone suffers an injury not from anyone's willful negligent act, but rather by engaging in some intrinsically dangerous activity or, under certain resistances, through the manufacturing of unsafe products,† (Rogers, S. 2012). Courts today, rationalize strict liability by establishing the fact that manufacturers are better positioned to prevent risk of loss than, that Of the consumer. As such, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure their products are safe.In order to be strictly liable for a prod uct, the plaintiff must demonstrate that there is a defect, the defect was caused by the manufacturer and in turn, was the cause of injury. See Kerr v. Corning Glass, 169 N. W.. Ad 587 (Min. 1969). In order to determine Contract Viability, it s important to review the agreements between ACME and the retailers. Examine each contract carefully ensuring it contains five essential elements. The legitimacy of the agreements is dependent upon it containing an offer, acceptance, consideration legality and capacity.To further explain, an offer is an invitation to enter into a contract. If a company agrees to the terms outlined in the offer, they have then accepted the agreement. Once an agreement has been recognized, it must be established that both parties have intentions to enter into a legal binding contract. The considerations of his agreement are legal exchanges for services or products. For ACME Fireworks, this will include the prices paid for the fireworks and the amounts desired. In order to be legally binding, the cost of doing business must not be illegal and, the ability to perform must not be impossible.Finally, it must be determined that both parties have entered into the contract freely without coercion or duress. Additionally, the law prohibits contracts made with persons of diminished mental capacity and minors. The contract probability concerns itself with the performance specifications and acquirement of the agreement. Though the agreement appears to be viable, if it lacks a specific performance strategy, it will not have a future. The probability Of the agreement to remain in force will be dependent upon the period of performance and quantities desired during that period.Fireworks are seasonal whereby; a retailer agreeing to order large quantities on a regular basis is not realistic. There is no guarantee the quantities will remain consistent throughout the contract period. Additionally, ACME is concerned about failing to meet its contractual obliga tions should it not hire enough people. The basic questions that need to be addressed are: how and when to order, amounts to order and what happens if ACME fails to deliver? The owner is concerned that there will not be enough work for the additional employees once the initial orders have been filled.The terms and conditions of the contract will determine the type of employees ACME will hire. At-will employment provides no obligation of continuous employment once the orders have been filled. For this reason, the law allows an employer to terminate without just cause or reason. Generally, this rule is applied for seasonal work. ACME Fireworks has several options to consider in meeting contract demands, performance and productivity. By hiring temporary full-time associates, ACME can readily meet demands however; there is no incentive to maintain a standard of quality or productivity.Same is true for part-time associates as their hours are usually dictated by the needs or demands Of a business. Consideration for casual and day labor employees might prove useful. Casual employees typically work on an as needed basis and usually consist of single parents, college students or applicants seeking extra money. Temp Agencies provide labor on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Typically, temp agency employees that excel are offered permanent positions within an organization. Hiring regular employees on a probationary basis will allow ACME the ability to meet the quality, performance and productivity of the contract.Generally a just-cause type of employment this employee is evaluated at the end of a specified period based upon certain criteria. If an employee fails to meet standards then they are usually let go. With the increase in business size and operation certain liabilities can raise concern. It is important to understand the differences associated with the different entities when choosing what best fits your organization. Whether choosing a Sole Proprietorship, a Pa rtnership, a Corporation or a Limited Liability Company, it is important to assess all the risks associated with the nature of the business.Currently, ACME Fireworks operates out of a garage and the owner enjoys complete autonomy over operations. Operating as a Sole Proprietorship, the business and the owner remain one and the same. This provides the highest risk of loss to personal assets. The disadvantage is that a sole proprietor has limited options for raising capital and no limits on liability for business debts; thus if the business does not fare well, the sole proprietor can face personal bankruptcy,† (Rogers, S. 2012).As a partnership, ACME Fireworks will share ownership with two or more people. â€Å"Partners are automatically owners and managers of the business, and the law presumes equal rights unless the partners have specified otherwise,† (Rogers, S. 2012). In a partnership, taxes are assessed on the earnings of the partners and not that of the business. Sh ould the company become party too lawsuit or is unable to fulfill its contractual obligations, the personal assets of all the partners can be used to satisfy a judgment by the court. Partners are not only liable for their own actions, but also for the business debts and decisions made by other partners. In addition, the personal assets of all partners can be used to satisfy the partnership's debt,† (SABA. Gob, 2014). Should ACME Fireworks consider a Corporation, it will become an independent legal entity. The owner(s) will then become shareholders which will limit their liability and legal responsibility. In order to remain free of any personal liability, the company must operate according to state corporation laws. If the corporate form of business organization is used to defraud creditors, stockholders will lose the protection of limited liability and will be held personally liable for all debts of the corporation,† (Rogers, S. 2012). Since a corporation requires the f iling of complicated forms, annual reports and fees, it can prove costly for a small company. Additionally, a corporation is double taxed whereby; the company pays taxes on its earnings and the shareholders pays taxes on dividends paid UT. A Limited Liability Company (LLC) provides the limited liability features of a Corporation but operates like a partnership or sole proprietorship.A LLC â€Å"typically features easier formation (although filing under the statute is required) and lower filing fees, flow-through taxation where members of a LLC are taxed on their earnings, but the business itself is not taxed, the stability of a corporation (a member's leaving will not dissolve the LLC), and limited liability, where the business is liable for its debts and the people who own it are not,† (Rogers, S. 2012). Since ACME Fireworks is a small business with a single owner, a LLC will provide a low cost alternative that provides limited protection of personal assets.Unlike like a cor poration, the taxes, profits and losses are passed through to each member of the LLC. Members are protected from personal liability for the actions and decisions Of the LLC. However, in the case of wrongful or illegal acts, the limited liability can be pierced and personal assets can be assessed. Additionally, it is important to separate business funds from personal funds. Should ACME use a personal ann. account to pay its creditors, they can in turn pierce the limited liability and seize the owners' personal funds. The Federal Government does not recognize a LLC as a separate entity as in a corporation.As such, the owner(s) of ACME Fireworks will file their shared earnings on their personal income tax. If the LLC is a single owner operation, income will be reported on a Schedule C just like that of a sole proprietorship. Should there be more than one member sharing in the profits and losses, a form 1 065 will be filed as is done in a Partnership. The entire net income of the LLC mu st be accounted or in the filings of all members involved. The owner of ACME Fireworks has asked for advices in choosing an entity that would provide the least risk to personal assets, should he fail to meet his contractual obligations.It is important for ACME Fireworks to understand the risks associated with the nature of the business. In assessing the current operation, ACME Fireworks operates out of a garage and currently employs approximately 15 people. The liabilities associated with the manufacture of dangerous materials poses a high risk to personal assets should a mishap occur. Before engaging rather, ACME must consider relocating to meet both local and state zoning laws. Additionally, Federal OSHA standards must be in place in order to release the owner of allegations associated with safety, wrong doing, or negligence.The law provides certain protections associated with All's and Corporations. As a sole-proprietor, ACME Fireworks and the owner are one in the same. Should th e company fail in its obligations or fail to warn and/or injure a consumer, the owner is held personally liable. If ACME is to pursue a partnership, the partners share in the personal liabilities of the company. For he production of what is considered dangerous materials (fireworks), the risks associated with injuries from product liability to manufacture are substantial.The company IS liable for intentional torts, negligence and strict liability as such; neither a sole-proprietorship nor partnership is suggested. As a manager of ACME Fireworks, would recommend the company pursue a Limited Liability Corporation. According to the Small Business Administration, â€Å"Members are protected from personal liability for business decisions or actions of the LLC,† (SABA. Gob, 2014). Essentially, if the LLC becomes party to a suit or is unable to fulfill its obligations, members enjoy the same protections as that of shareholders in a corporation.However, as a limited liability company , they are not exempt from litigation involving wrongful acts by its members or employees. In a LLC, the owner will retain control over the company as in a sole-proprietorship and lessens the risk of personal liability. The owner is also concerned with ACME's ability to meet either contractual obligations or make payroll. The LLC would provide the protections it needs without relinquishing control to a Board of Directors, as in a corporation. Without knowing the specific terms and conditions of the agreements, it is difficult to ascertain viability and validity.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Costs Of Healthcare For The Homeless Population

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