Monday, September 30, 2019
Imagine you have oversight of the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty. Are you comfortable with what is going on? Is this a brand that is out of control with its promotional messages? Dove released its first advertising on 1957, in which Dove called its product as Ã¢â¬Å"cleaning creamÃ¢â¬ instead of soap. After that, Dove launched some advertising to emphasized on its functional feature. In 2000, Dove became a Masterbrand of Unilever. In other words, it had to establish a meaning for Dove that could apply to and extend over the entire stable of products. In order to stand for a point of view, Ã¢â¬Å"The Campaign for Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ began to process. Then campaign focus on the self-esteem and confidence instead of appearances, it still could be include into female field. Just from external to inner, So Dove is not out of control with its promotional message. In my opinion, I am comfortable with DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign due to the following reasons. First, Dove more concerned about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling and inner spirit. When the advertising plays too many shots on the beauty of girls, sometimes, the values and aesthetic of the society will be influence. Women and teenager girls would pay more money and time to fit their body. Therefore, DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising will not add this misleading. Second, Dove choose YouTube and Blog as the major platform, it is a wise and trendy choice. Internet plays more and more important role in the modern life, especially the raise of the social networking. In the future, Dove has more opportunities to attract public and ahead of other companies. Third, Dove always guarantees the quality of ads. Their advertising is not a simple product promotion, but some interesting story and conversation. The products of Dove even do not need to be photographed. The consumers will remember such high-quality ad and are willing to share with others. Moreover, DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Real Beauty campaign built a buzz and was widely exposed. People actively discussed the campaign through Internet and TV shows, even famous celebrities like Oprah Winfrey and Jay Leno talked about it in their TV shows. Though there were many parodies in the Internet, they were funny and generated more attentions on the brand. Last but not least, the campaign was contributed to the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s business growth and values. In 2006, Landor Associates identified Dove was one of the 10 brands with the greatest ercentage gain in brand health and business values. 2. Is DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to engender social engagement through its promotional campaigns too risky an endeavor given its lack of control over consumer parody and accusations of trying to sell under the pretense of contributing to the social good? In the business, every decision faced the profit and risk. Generally, th e greater the risks result in the greater rewards. The risks are as follow: Through the investigation, Dove found out that many women had discontent with the Ã¢â¬Å"young, white blonde and thinÃ¢â¬ models, because they could not attain that standard. Dove started the advertisement Ã¢â¬Å"Campaign for Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ , underlining their products will Ã¢â¬Å"feel betterÃ¢â¬ , while other company always publicize Ã¢â¬Å"look beautifulÃ¢â¬ in the commercial. The risk is that whether or not the consumers understand and accept that change. On next stage, Dove was a very controversial event. Billboards were erected to vote on whether a woman on the billboard was Ã¢â¬Å"outsizedÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"outstandingÃ¢â¬ . A counter showed the result. As a beauty brand, this campaign will attract public attention; simultaneously will challenge the brand cognitive. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, Dove broke the traditional rule in the company and go forward without paid media at all. YouTube become the most important platform instead of television. When Dove made this decision, the risk is that maybe they will lose some traditional and classical consumers. Facing the negative responses, Dove did not ignore them, but positive embrace them. The company list both view in other medias and allow public to discuss these. They also sent interactive packages to media outlets to help spur the debate. Finally, Unilever established the global Dove Self-Esteem Fund to raise the self-esteem of girls and young women. Such activities give a support to the Ã¢â¬Å"Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ . DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s public relations channel strategy was to generate broad awareness for Ã¢â¬Å"The Campaign for Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ and establish an emotional connection with women. Therefore, a political figure or a major news organization or even a film is not as influence as an open dialogue. 3. After reviewing the blogs, what do the various discussions contribute to the meaning of the brand? There are mainly two opinions exists among the blogs. The supporters considered DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Real Beauty campaign was an emotional touch from Dove to consumer. They thought the campaign has shed light on some important truths about the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s unrealistic portrayals of women, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s important and necessary to send a health beauty message to the society. However, the criticisms thought that Dove is hypocritical and the campaign is just aimed to sell more products and gain more profits. The reason they thought Dove is hypocritical is because Dove comes from Unilever, which promotion young, thin and sexy woman in the AxeÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements. They also criticized DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements had many untruthful details and inconsistent. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, they thought the campaign has no major aspirational values attached to the product and was undermining the aspiration of consumers. Regardless of these different opinions towards the Real Beauty campaign, DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s brand name has successfully gone viral and drew a lot of attentions worldwide. People were spreading quickly the message of Ã¢â¬Å"Real BeautyÃ¢â¬ and they still continuously discuss it nowadays. This kind of exposure has extraordinary impact of DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s brand awareness and popularity. Therefore, it contributed to the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term value and equity. Though there were many parodies exits in the Internet, for ordinary consumers, they might just remember how funny and interesting the parodies were, as well as the appealing Ã¢â¬Å"real beautyÃ¢â¬ messages that Dove tried to spread. It was a risk strategy for Dove, but as long as Dove manages its public relations and other advertisements carefully, consumers would still like DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s affordable good-quality products. The increasing sales growth of Dove could be a strong argument for it. Moreover, I think Dove was trying to be an inspirational brand to inspire positive self image among women. It successfully differentiated itself to other competitors. The Dove Self-Esteem Fund program was a plus to win over customersÃ¢â¬â¢ hearts. 4. Describe DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s brand management organization and the reason for it. Do you see any problems or issues that will result with this split-responsibility setup? In 2000, Dove was selected to be a Masterbrand and lent its name to Unilever entries in personal care categories. There are two split-responsibility groups in DoveÃ¢â¬â¢s brand management organization: Brand Development and Brand Building. Brand Development group charged with development of the brand, took responsibility for developing the idea behind the brand, developed the brand plan. It was accountable for medium-to long-term market share, for brand health, for measures of innovativeness, and for creating value in the category. It was centralized and global in scope. The other group Brand Building charged with building the brand in specific markets and was decentralized according to the major geographic regions in which Unilever operated. It was accountable for growth, profit, cash flow, and short-term market share. It managed public relations and informal communication. The pros of this split-responsibly setup brand management system are that the advertising messages could be more tailored to different markets. However, the problem might result with this split-responsibly system is the inconsistent management of the brand image. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a challenge for the two groups to balance between short-term values and long-term values for the brand. For example, the Brand Building group might develop an aggressive public relations strategy to generate attention in order to gain short-term market share, which might not be a smart move to build the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term value and gain long-term market share.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Prejudice is an attitude that releases closely to intercultural sensitively. It is more commonly held and expressed by people in ethnocentric stages of the sensitivity model compared to people in the ethnorelatives stages. (Oetzel, 2009). Prejudice is the belief and feeling aspect of an attitude. It can be a pro or con but leads us to judging something based on our preconception. Prejudice is where you think against someone or something for no particular reason, thought or knowledge. It be because race , sex , age , or whatever . An would be like , Ã¢â¬Å" Oh I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like her , sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a lesbian,Ã¢â¬ or sheÃ¢â¬â¢s black or white or of any other race. Stereotype are overgeneralized cognitions about a group of people with no attempt to identify within Ã¢â¬âgroup variation . Stereotypes often based on learned and widely shared beliefs and another group that reinforce or justify prejudice (Oetzel, 2009) . A stereotype is a set of preconceived beliefs about those who share a trait in common . It is the narrow prejudice view of a particular social group . Such as Ã¢â¬Å"black people know how to danceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"women are better at cooking and worst at drivingÃ¢â¬ . TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re sometimes offensive and often unfair. Stereotypes is a view of social group that sticks , even though the social group is full of individuals who may not share any of the traits of the stereotype at all. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like Ã¢â¬Å"cheerleaders are bitchesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"geeks are smartÃ¢â¬ . Discrimination is action that maintain the dominance of one group of people over another. The power to enact the behavior is a key component to racism and discrimination. That power can be from a held position (being a boss) or social power (being part of a group that has political power). (Oetzel, 2009). Discrimination is where you actively are against someone for no reason , either on the basis of age , race , class or whatever . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s different from a prejudice because you actually do an action , such as not giving that person a job because of your prejudice , or refusing to give them a room at a hotel. I remember when I was young , I use to live with my Father in a small town in Ohio. It was mainly white community , I had a friend that was white. She had invited me over her house and her Grandma was racist. When I walked in to her home , her grandma said to me Ã¢â¬Å"she canÃ¢â¬â¢t have company at all and you need to leaveÃ¢â¬ . The next day I seen my friend , she had apologized to me, and said I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why my grandma acts like that to black people. Ã¢â¬Å" She told her granddaughter not to play with blacks only with white childrenÃ¢â¬ , and she only would allow white children to come to her house . She never listened to her she still played with me anyway. I told her it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t her fault that some people are just racist. Later on that week I was in the store with my grandma which is white also , we had seen my friend and her grandma . Her grandma tried to act as if nothing happen and spoke to my grandma and said to me you can come back over and play. I gave an example of prejudice stereotype and discrimination . People also stereotype for many of different reasons such as tattoos, race , religion, age gender and etc. Now days young folks now have a new way to rebel against society and ultimately and more honestly their parents . We began to see masses of young , dim witted teens getting idiotic tattoos just so they can feel like a badass (greengysywolf1 (How Prejudice and Fear). Children not knowing that when they get older that tattoos will affect them getting a job or the way society will look at them because of the tattoos they have on them. Even though itÃ¢â¬â¢s not right thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way society stereotypes and discriminates people because of their appearance. People get tattoos because they enjoy them , not to mark them as different , not to get jollies of the pain , or not to be the evil spawn of satan himself (greengysywolf1 (How Prejudice and Fear). People also stereotype people that have been in prison. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s people that have went to prison and have changed their lives around completely . I have a friend that is about Ã¢â¬Å"6 4Ã¢â¬ and 200 pounds , but seems blessed with a baby face , so no one believes he ever been to prison . He usually waits until he meets someone in person to tell them , even though he knows there is a chance they will refuse to accept it . IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen the look , the change behind the eyes that goes from listening to what the stereotypes say an ex-con is and should be . I found it interesting because he tends to be more truthful and respectful than people who have not done time. Prejudice exist everywhere; with prejudice comes a stereotype or discrimination. Most stereotypes are dealt with minorities , especially in the United States . Basically, It all depends on how a person was raised . Most of Americans assumes that every white person grew up either in the suburbs , or well-to-do apartments in the city. While sometimes that is true ,but some lives in bad areas like farming towns and many other diverse places. Where you raise your family depends on your income and your family situation most of the time. If they have a higher income than yours average American, than they probably live in the most high-class place they can buy. If they are middle class than suburbia is most likely option. If they exist in the lower class , your income is not so great. Then they would probably live in poorly developed neighborhoods , like a trailer park or apartment complex. African Americans continue to face the highest level of discrimination in renting , selling and insuring property, according to the National Fair Housing Alliance . People with disabilities field the second highest number of claims followed by families with children and Hispanics. (surge). The British did an research article in 2009. , with 60 people ranging from 18 to 65 years of age . The tests of implicit attitude used in this study are based on links to real world behaviour, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that those participants with a very strong homophobic attitude would routinely behave in a discriminatory way. The four or five per cent with strong prejudices would find their attitudes often affect their behaviour and the 15 to 20 per cent with Ã¢â¬Ëmid-rangeÃ¢â¬â¢ prejudices are probably unaware of their attitude, but their thoughts and feelings towards gay or lesbian people will probably surface when they are emotional, stressed, frustrated or threatened (Society, 2009). I think people should look at themselves before they try and judge others , without getting to know them or speak to them first. Before you judge a book by its cover at lease open a couple of pages and read about it first. Works Cited Oetzel, J. G. (2009). Intercultural Communication (A Layered Approach). New Jersy: Pearson Education Inc. Page, H. (n. d. ). How To Stereotypes Affect My Life. Retrieved 2012, from http://greengypsywolf1. hubpages. com/getwidget. Society, T. B. (2009, Jan 16). Ã¢â¬Å"Prejudice Study Finds Gay Is The New BlackÃ¢â¬ . Medical News Today. Surge, H. D. (n. d. ). CNN Cable News. Retrieved 2012, from http://www. cnn. com/US/9705/21/briefs. pm/housing/index. html.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Coca-Cola Company Financial Results Analysis - Essay Example The first one being sales volume growth, structural changes, positive price/mix approximated at 3 percent and most important acquisition of the Great Plains Coca-Cola Bottling Company (Ã¢â¬Å"The Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬ , 2012). North American segment is a very sensitive market taking into consideration that the consumers have become highly health conscious owing to the escalating cases of obesity and other lifestyle diseases associated with high sugar and calories diet and beverages. This claim can be justified that Ã¢â¬Å"still beveragesÃ¢â¬ recorded a 7 percent volume gain in North America segment while traditional sodas volume was flat as from the previous year (Choi Ap, 2012). This means that most Americans have found a new and better taste in less sugary beverages such as Powerade sports drinks and Fuze teas. North America is an important growth segment for Coca Cola Company and this explain the reasons why the company has become more innovative to find better ratio and alte rnatives to consumers who are health conscious (Ã¢â¬Å"Emerging marketsÃ¢â¬ , 2012). For instance, Coca Cola Company came up with a mini-cans targeting consumers watching their diet. Coke Zero is another example of an initiative by the company to tap into the highly health sensitive north America segment as the drink stands out to the best alternative to traditional soda brands provided by the company. It is noteworthy that Coke Zero recorded a 9 percent volume gain in the North America segment. 2. The drivers of profitability Notable drivers for profitability during the third quarter were the global volume gain in developed and emerging market. According to Ziobro (2012), the coca cola company recorded volume boom in almost all its segments with significant volume growth in emerging markets such as India and Thailand. The company recorded a global volume gain of 4 percent in its third quarter earnings(Zacks Equity Research, 2012). Similar characteristics marked by growth in sales volume was evident in geographical operating segments considering that the developed and the emerging markets recorded a 2 percent and 7 percent growth respectively. Data from each geographical operating segment were as follows; Eurasia and Africa Group +11%, Europe Group +1, Latin America Group +5, North America Group +2, and finally Pacific Group +3 (Ã¢â¬Å"The Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬ , 2012). It is believed that the strong volume growth in different markets segments will play an important role in boosting coca cola company earnings in future despite the growing competition from key competitors such as PepsiCo. 3. Earnings per Share results Coca Cola Company reported $0.50 Earnings Per Share (EPS) in its third quarter report while the Earnings Per Share (EPS) of the previous financial year was $0.48 which demonstrates a growth in EPS though the company claims that it met the analyst expectation of$0.51 (Zacks Equity Research, 2012). The comparable EPS for the current third quarte r was $0.51 meaning that it fell short by $0.01. The increase in EPS in the current financial year (third quarter) is attributable to increase
Friday, September 27, 2019
The British Economy - Essay Example However, in order to facilitate these activities and to increase efficiencies, new concepts, theories and method have been developed. In this process, the accuracy and efficiency has enhanced but complexities have also increased significantly. International trade has a great economic importance as it helps to bring economic prosperity to a country. International trade activities include import and export which influences foreign and domestic exchanges. Besides, certain economic risks are also associated with international trade and hence, government always try to control international trade related activities (Seyoum, 2000, p.8). This paper will attempt to deal with foreign exchanges policy of UK. Earlier, the UK pound was used to be determined using the fixed exchange rate policy by comparing to other foreign currencies. However, due to certain shortcomings of fixed exchange rate policy, the UK Government has shifted to floating exchange rate policy. This paper will present explanat ions on fixed and floating rate policies and how the UK Government plays crucial role in controlling and deciding the foreign and domestic currency policies. ... The per capita GDP was nearly was $35,100 with real GDP growth rate of 1.6% in 2010.Regulatory authorities including the central bank (Bank of England) is responsible for managing and controlling the economic affairs. The inflation and unemployment in 2010 were 3.3% and 7.9%. During the financial crisis of 2007-2008, the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was heavily affected. However, currently, the economy is recovering at higher speed as policy makers have taken necessary steps for improving the overall economic condition (CIA 2011). Nearly 75% and 23.8% of total GDP is contributed by the services sectors and Industries. The major services sectors include -financial, distribution, business, communication, hotels, transport etc. Currently, the country is suffering from high trade deficit due to higher import comparing to lower export. During 2009, net export of goods and services were recorded $351.3 billion; whereas, net imports of goods and services were higher i.e. $473.6 billion (U.S. Departm ent of State, 2010). As per the updated information, the value of 1 British pound is compared to other major foreign currency in the given below. Table 1: British Pound and Other Foreign Currency (Source: MSN Money, 2011) Fixed Exchange Rate System and Role of UK Government The foreign exchange rate is very important for controlling the major aspects of economy like import, expert, interest rate, inflation etc. The foreign currency market is exposed to different types of risk that affect the entire economic policy like inflation, interest and unemployment etc. There are two types of foreign currency policies i.e. fixed and floating. Earlier, UK Government used to
Thursday, September 26, 2019
How Going Public For Facebook Has Affected The Company - Research Paper Example Since that time, it has seen its users numbers grow to over 900 million users who are active. Handset devices are the majorly used by the Facebook subscribers. As typically anticipated, changing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s status from a private to a public status happens to be a commemorative period for the commercial entity holder, as well as, the management. The IPO signifies a reward for periods of thriving practices of the Facebook Company and the affirmative reception by the consumers. Nevertheless, the taking of the Facebook Company happened to highlight the significant weaknesses perhaps as an entity that is not geared up to see through the extra burden of finances and consequently lack of control. This is brought about by the initiation into the market of the stock exchange. As is the norm when preparing a company for an IPO issuance, a company cannot put out the information regarding its finances with any prospective investors or present investors through the quiet period. Therefore, investing in the company comes out blindly, a case that could make the investors lose their finances on the takeover supposing the company is overvalued as is the Facebook Company. In the process of making acquisition briefly after the IPO, since the overvaluation result in the unreasonably investors being buoyant, there is bound to be an overpayment. The challenges the Facebook Company has undergone since transforming its status into being a public company have posed numerous challenges to its undertakings. These challenges have consequently had a bearing effect on the company. Introduction The process of acquiring a public status of a trading company dealing in the stock exchange market from a private entity is not a procedure to be assumed lightly. The procedure is rigorous and takes up a lot of the financial resources, the dedication of management and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s time. However, the result of transforming into a public entity is significant as it comes along with an inc rease in the finances together with an increase in the level of awareness by the public. In addition, there is also the increase in the requirements of the legal nature and the corporate responsibility. Facebook CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s intention of having IPO was essentially become traded in the public domain and consequently become bigger. Therefore, the individuals who put up their finances in the company through purchasing of the shares of the company gain a part of ownership of the company for an opportunity to share in the advantages of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s upcoming profits. For the owner of the Facebook Company, part of control he encompasses for the company was given up relative to the percentage of the company put up on sale. On top of being answerable to its shareholders, the Facebook Company has been opened to scrutiny by the government and the public. Nonetheless, the anticipation is that the Facebook Company will be able to generate extra capital resources as its capability to do so have been considerably improved. The general net worth of the company which is necessitated by the selling of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock, results in the company attaining such capabilities. The thriving of the stock of the company as was expected prior to the IPO was that it would play a part in the decreasing of any ratio of the debt versus the income, consequently assisting in the enhancement of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s score on its credit. Therefore, supposing the Facebook Company after attaining the public trading company status had successful stock provision, lenders can subsequently is found easily. This is because of the enhanced rating of credit
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Muath - Assignment Example Some of the uses of Facebook have been explained in this report in details. The report also explains the different social networking websites. The report then compares their functionalities with those of Facebook. Also, the differences between the different social networking websites and Facebook are identified and stated against each of the social networking website. The report further explains the context in which the social networks operate and the kind of users who make use of them. The report explains why the development of the social networking needs to be used and understood in our modern world. With the emergence of a number of social networks, there is a need to know which particular site is used for what purpose and which particular site to use for another purpose. The problems associated with having too many friends in Facebook have also been explained. It has been noted that, the use of Facebook has brought harm and benefit to society. Facebook users have been a target by criminals who obtain information about their whereabouts. Facebook has also been a challenge of handling the privacy issues. The benefits of Facebook can also be enjoyed by many since it has enabled the fast transfer of social information, sharing articles and updating on events. Facebook is a networking service for the society to communicate together. In this website, we can register as users then we can add friends, photos and videos, share links and games and exchange comments and messages. It has many features that are released time to time such as how would you like to receive the notifications, voice and video calls and the timeline page feature (Kirkpatrick, 2011). Facebook is one of the major set of social networking software used today on our society. It became into existence in 2004. Three college students led by Mark Zuckerberg came up with the idea of creating a platform in the form of a website where other students
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Discipline Model - Essay Example The Dreikurs Model says that the teacher should be democratic and put limits for the students instead of punishing them. The Canter Model and The Fred Jones Model is about taking charge and providing efficient help to students and conveying messages through body language. The discipline model that I have selected is The Fred Jones Model. I have selected this model because children are very good at understanding non-verbal signals. They can respond to them better. With body language the students can predict the teacher's signs and respond accordingly. It makes it easier for the student to understand as he is getting only one signal instead of two, i.e. verbal and non-verbal. My teaching philosophy is that both teacher and students maintain a healthy relationship with clear communication. The teacher should be fair in all grading and implementation of the discipline model. All students are different and each one needs to be administered to individually, this model helps me achieve that because it asks to give individual attention to each child. Also, I believe in active learning and by giving incentives and Preferred Activity Time, I will be able tot each them some lessons outside the classroom as well. Learning is more important than getting a grade, which is why this model is more effective for me. It emphasizes on the need for the students to absorb the knowledge given to them. To achieve the grade the student needs to learn and set a goal, I help them set goals on the first day of class. This model focuses on giving incentives to students for doing the right thing. One suggestion by Fred Jones is that to allocate Preferred Activity Time, which can be for the whole class and if they behave they can do whatever activity they want in this time period. The model suggests that the teacher should give individual attention to students. This would motivate them to complete their work and move forward with their learning. The idea is to praise prompt and leave. There may be cases, when one child will continue to misbehave in this case I will have a backup plan ready to use. These punishments should be pre-planned and within the classroom so that the least amount of teaching time is wasted. Parents and administrators should be involved in the teaching and discipline process. They basic guidelines should be mentioned to them at the start of the semester and they should be briefed about all actions that the teacher plans to take in specific circumstances. The support of both parties should be achieved before going further and implementing the plans. Thus, it is best to talk to parents and the administrators before the start of the semester. On the first day of the new school term, the teacher should ensure that the class layout is such which enhances learning and easier communication with the teacher. It should also facilitate movement and not make it difficult for the student or the teacher to move around the class. The general rules should be told to the students and maybe put up in the class somewhere so that the students are not confused about them at any time. Also, all the tools and equipment required by the students for any activity that the teacher administers should be in the classroom and easily accessible to the students. This should all be done on the first day of the semester so that in future there are no misunderstandings between the teacher and
Monday, September 23, 2019
For the American Government Class - Assignment Example Each member of congress has a member of staff who manages the office and in the drafting of legislature. Members of the congressional committee also have their own staff similar to the congressional budget office, office of technology assessment. b. What are the differences between departments, agencies, and bureaus? Departments are pieces of a business, that is, a business can be divided into several departments, to make it easier to manage, an agency part of a large bureau and a bureau is the highest in the chain of command. c. How is the federal bureaucracy staffed, and how has this changed since the nineteenth century? In the 19th century, the presidents could hire and fire staff of the federal bureaucracy as they saw fit, this created an office, which was filled with the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s allies and friends, but no work was being done. Today the staffs do not have to be hired by the president only, but the senate must come in and approve of them, as well. Question # 2 a. What did Justice Meyer mean by "ancient liberty?" He means that it is necessary to consider ancient and active liberty this is the liberty to engage in active and constant involvement, in collective power, this is when considering the resolution of a case. b. Discuss his three basic views, in detail, with regard to the constitution. Make sure to include and discuss the framework he writes that the constitution creates.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s Captivating DNC Speech Essay On September 5th 2012, former president Bill Clinton stepped on stage to address citizens at the Democratic National Convention and countless other Americans watching from home. ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s speech took place prior to the Republican National Convention, and responds to many of the misleading claims that were made there. ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s clear goal and objective is to inform and educate the American voters as to why he believes Barak Obama should be re-elected as opposed to Governor Romney. In doing this he not only gives the facts, but cements his ethos by referencing his own presidency and letting his record speak for itself on issues such as; jobs, the economy, healthcare, and even the constant bickering between parties. Clinton instantly dives in by pointing out the major flaw in politics: the fighting between parties. Ã¢â¬Å"Through my foundation, in America and around the world, I work with Democrats, Republicans and Independents who are focused on solving problems and seizing opportunities, not fighting with each other.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 1) Ã¢â¬Å"Though I often disagree with Republicans, I never learned to hate them the way the far right that now controls their party seems to hate President Obama and the Democrats.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 2) What Clinton does in this passage is put the constant fighting between parties in perspective. He has worked with Republicans before and after his presidency and gives credibility to the idea the compromising is possible. I think that in talking about how his foundationÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is Ã¢â¬Å"on solving problems and seizing opportunities, his is connecting to the everyday, average American who is tired of corruption and lack work being done by both sides. To further this argument he throws out a quote made by Reagan and even gets an applause for Bush by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I worked with President George Hw.W. Bush on national education goals and am grateful to President George W. Bush for his efforts and work with PEPFARÃ¢â¬ which is an organization that saves millions of lives in poor countries.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 2) By referencing his republican predecessors he not only shows goodwill, but that he and other Democrats are willing to do something the Republicans arenÃ¢â¬â¢t; compromise. Before even speaking a word I held this man to great admiration and respect. The opinions that I already had of Clinton were based on the fact that I was a 90Ã¢â¬â¢s baby and grew up during his presidency. The economy was booming and both my parents had steady, good paying jobs like many other AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s. Its these economic times that produced four surplus budgets to which the former president references by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"People ask me all the time how we delivered four surplus budgets. What new ideas did we bring? I always give a one work answer: arithmetic.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 6) This leads to the thought that it could happen again if only republicans would do the math. This insinuation also invokes many questions regarding the republicanÃ¢â¬â¢s validity. Can their word be held truthful? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s politics itÃ¢â¬â¢s getting harder to tell. Taking this into account, Clinton does an excellent job as painting himself as the Ã¢â¬Å"truth tellerÃ¢â¬ , and uses hints of logos to even further his ethos by using data and statistics. ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest and most powerful moment comes when he delivers a moment of silence to get people to listen and to signify that something important was about to be said, and there was. Ã¢â¬Å"I experienced the same thing in 1994 and early 1995. Our policies were working and the economy was growing but most people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel it yet. By 1996, the economy was roaring, halfway through the longest peacetime expansion in American history. President Obama started with a much weaker economy then I did when I came into office. No president- no me or any of my predecessors could have repaired all the damage in just four years. But conditions are improving and if youÃ¢â¬â¢ll renew the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s contract you will feel it.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 3) I believe that this statement alone helps persuade people in favor of Obama and gives really great insight to voters of the severity of the job he inherited due to the short comings of The Bush administration and republican policy. Clinton faced the difficult task of going before the American people and addressing one by one all the claims made against Barak Obama at the Republican National Convention. To wind down his speech he uses the typical presidential line Ã¢â¬Å"my fellow Americans you have to decide what kind of country you want to live in. If you want a youÃ¢â¬â¢re on your own, winner take all society you should support the Republican ticket. If you want a country of shared opportunities and shared responsibilities- a Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬â¢re all in it togetherÃ¢â¬ society, you should vote for Barak Obama and Joe Biden.Ã¢â¬ (Clinton 6) He uses the term Ã¢â¬Å" my fellow AmericansÃ¢â¬ to place himself as one of the people and not above them. This shows one of the many reasons why he is so relatable to the average person. There is no doubt that the role of president is the most powerful position that one person can hold, but with that title comes a great amount of responsibility and at times a certain kind of loneliness that nobody could possibly understand. In saying this I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think there could have been anyone better to argue ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s case then someone who has held the position and someone who is probably the most popular president of our time. While many may still be on the fence on who they should vote for, but my opinion is that if he is good enough for Bill Clinton then he is good enough for me. Clinton, Bill. Ã¢â¬Å"Democratic Nation Convention SpeechÃ¢â¬ , ABC News: ABC news corp., September 5, 2012. Web.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Forensic Scientist Research Paper Essay Definition of a Forensic Scientist There is a definition for a forensic scientist. According to Career Information Center, there is a definition for forensic scientist, Ã¢â¬Å"forensic scientists gather and evaluate evidence from victims, vehicles, and scenes of crimes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Their findings may help to convict or prove the innocence of a person accused of a crime.Ã¢â¬ Nearly all forensic scientists work for federal, state, or local law enforcement (Engineering. 126). Entry Requirements There are entry requirements to become a forensic scientist. According to Career Information Center, to be a forensic scientist, one needs at least a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in physical or natural science. However, most crime labs prefer employees that have a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s or doctorateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in forensics (Engineering. 126). Working Conditions Forensic scientists work varied hours. According to Career Information Center, forensic scientist work a five day, forty hour work week. However, they are on call 24-7 and may be expected to answer late night calls. In some cases, overtime is forced on employees (Engineering. 127). Forensic scientists work in varied environments. They spend most of their time in clean labs (Engineering. 127). They may also work outdoors in all weather conditions including snow, rain and heat (Echaore-McDavid 61). Forensic scientists have to stand, bend, kneel, and crouch in awkward positions (Echaore-McDavid 61). Forensic scientists have to observe unpleasant sights such as blood and corpses (Engineering. 127). Also, there are some risks with working with weapons (Engineering. 127). In addition, forensic scientists are exposed to noxious fumes and poisons (Engineering. 127). Generally, forensic scientists work with lab partners and other branches of law enforcement such as, policemen, FBI, and judges (Engineering. 127). Pay and Benefits Forensic ScientistÃ¢â¬â¢s pay varies. According to Career Information Center, their earnings vary depending on experience and education. Entry level pay for a forensic scientist with a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in 2005 was about $30,000 a year. The median salary was about $40,000. Experienced forensic scientists with a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree earn around $70,000. Different types of forensic scientists earn different salaries. For example, a technician will make around $40,000 a year, but a forensic pathologist can earn up to $200,000 a year. Also, large crime labs use specialists, scientists who do one specific duty well. These specialists often make more money than others (Engineering. 127). Forensic Scientists get benefits. According to Career Information Center, forensic scientists get sick days and vacation days. The amount of days depends on the crime lab they work at. They are also offered medical insurance. Again, this varies with the crime lab. Forensic scientists are also offered pension plans (Engineering. 127). Advancement Forensic scientists have opportunity for advancement. Most start out as trainees where they learn how to do their job. Then, they are given more freedom and assume the duties of the other forensic scientists. A few people may be promoted to senior forensic scientist or manager of the crime lab (Echaore-McDavid 60). Typically, positions open up when other forensic scientists are promoted, retire, or if the lab expands (Engineering. 127). Also, forensic scientists may train new employees for a bonus (Engineering. 127). Outlook Forensic scientists have a very positive outlook. Jobs in forensic science are expected t raise by twenty percent in ten years, well above the national average (U.S. Dept. n.p.) Growth in the field of forensic science is tied to crime rates, high crime rates means a large amount of jobs (Engineering. 127). According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, new technologies speed up the growth of jobs in forensic science. Furthermore, there were 12,800 jobs held by forensic scientists in 2008. The projected employment for 2018 is 15,300 jobs (U.S. Dept. n.p.). JOB DUTIES OF A FORENSIC SCIENTIST Second, there are personal qualities that are required to be a forensic scientist. There are job duties that all forensic scientists share. Also, there are job duties for different types of forensic scientists. Personal Qualities There are personal qualities that are necessary to have to be a forensic scientist. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, Forensic scientists must have communication skills, teamwork skills, writing skills, problem solving skills, and self management skills. Forensic scientists must also be observant, objective, detail oriented, meticulous, ethical, honest, dependable, and courteous. In addition, computer skills are recommended (Echaore-McDavid 60). General Job Duties There are some job duties that all forensic scientists share. All forensic scientists gather, evaluate, and analyze evidence and data from victims, vehicles, and crime scenes (Engineering. 126). Forensic scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ findings are used in court cases (Engineering. 126). They may have to train lower level or new employees (Echaore-McDavid 63). All forensic scientists may be called out to crime scenes (Echaore-McDavid 63). Technicians Forensic technicians have specific job duties. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, they gather physical evidence, such as bullets, weapons, and tissues from crime scenes. Technicians must also talk and coordinate with police officers at the crime scene. They note, sketch, and photograph every piece of evidence. Then the technicians send the evidence to the crime lab for further investigating. Technicians also submit accurate and well detailed reports and documentation for court cases. Technicians also maintain and use photography equipment as well as develop film (Echaore-McDavid 60-1). Latent Prints Examiner Prints Examiners have specific job duties as well. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, prints examiners analyze all latent prints including fingerprints, palm prints, footprints, and tire tracks. They use chemicals and plasters to lift prints from scenes of crimes. They take photographs of the prints and convert them to 3D images on a computer. Prints examiners compare these prints with known suspects, victims, and others. Examiners will write reports of their findings and may testify in court (Echaore-McDavid 63). Forensic Chemist Forensic chemists also have specific job duties. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, chemists use chemical analysis to examine physical evidence. They also perform tests to determine the contents of an unknown substance. Chemists make reports and may testify in court (Echaore-McDavid 65). Trace Evidence Examiner Trace evidence examiners have specific job duties as well. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, trace evidence examiners examine hair, tissues, saliva, blood, fluids, plastics, metals, and explosives. They work in crime labs alongside chemists and print examiners. They also develop new and better methods for examining evidence (Echaore-McDavid 65). Firearms and Toolmark Examiners Firearms and toolmark examiners have specific job duties. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, they handle two pieces of evidence: firearms and tools. They determine if firearms or tools were used in a crime. They make identical matches between guns and bullets, and tools and toolmarks. Firearms and toolmark examiners also determine paths of bullets and recreate crime scenes (Echaore-McDavid 69). Questioned Documents Examiner Questioned documents examiners have their own job duties. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, documents examiners analyze checks, currency, vouchers, contracts, certificates, wills, notes and letters. They check if documents and signatures are real or counterfeit. They determine if changes have been made to a document and determine what words were erased or crossed out. Document examiners also identify different types of inks and papers (Echaore-McDavid 71). Polygraph Examiner Polygraph examiners have specific job duties too. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, polygraph examiners administer polygraph tests to suspects and analyze the results. Polygraphs measure pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and perspiration during questioning. Polygraph examiners write their own questions and give them to suspects (Echaore-McDavid 76). Forensic Pathologist Forensic pathologists have specific job duties. According to Law Enforcement, Security, and Protective Services, forensic pathologists primarily perform autopsies. They answer the time of death, whether a death was caused by suicide or homicide, and cause of death. Pathologists may also have to identify bodies. They are also called out to crime scene to examine bodies before they are moved. Forensic pathologists sometimes meet with families of the deceased (Echaore-McDavid 73). ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Third, there are advantages to having a career as a forensic scientist. There are also disadvantages. Advantages Forensic scientists have advantages for their occupation. With enough education, most forensic scientists make around $70,000 a year (Engineering. 126). They can also earn sick and vacation days (Engineering. 126). They get medical insurance (Engineering. 126). Finally, forensic science is a fast growing field. Its growth is above the national average (U.S. Dept. n.p.). Disadvantages There are also disadvantages in the field of forensic science. The occupation is very high stress. Forensic scientists may witness gruesome sights (Engineering. 126). They also put themselves at risk by working with weapons and chemicals (Engineering. 126). Also, forensic scientists are on call 24-7 and may be forced into working overtime (Echaore-McDavid 60). In addition, it takes about six years to earn a good degree, masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, in forensic science (Engineering. 126). EDUCATION Fourth, there are entry requirements to get into Michigan State University. In addition, Michigan State offers a great program to study forensic science. Entry Requirements The main entry requirement for Michigan Stat is to have a better application than the other applicants. According to PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Year Colleges, the average high school GPA of those admitted to MSU is 3.61. Ninety-seven percent of students had an ACT score over eighteen and nine percent had a score of thirty. Seventy-six percent of students scored over 500 in reading on the SATÃ¢â¬â¢s, eighty-five percent scored over 500 in math, and seventy-three percent scored over 500 in writing. Nine percent of students scored over 700 in reading, fourteen percent scored over 700 in math, and five percent scored over 700 in writing. Only seventy-three percent of applicants are admitted into Michigan State University (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Those admitted into MSU are required to pay tuition. According to PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Year Colleges, on average, state residents are charged about $7,665 per year. Out of state residents are charged around $20,310. Part-time students who live in state are charged $235 per credit hour. Out of state part-time students are charged $656 per credit hour. Some financial aid is provided by MSU if necessary (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Michigan State University Michigan State is a great college to study to study forensic science. MSU was founded in 1885 (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). The school has offered a forensic science program since 1946 (Ã¢â¬Å"School.Ã¢â¬ n.p.). MSU is a coed school (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s 473). The campus is 5,192 acres and has relatively easy access to Detroit and Lansing (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Michigan State has a great college atmosphere. According to PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Year Colleges, fifty-four percent of students are women and forty-six percent are men. There are students studying at MSU from fifty-four states and territories. There are also students from one hundred different countries. The student faculty ration at MSU is 17:1 (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). MSU has a great athletic program. According to PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Year Colleges, all sports available at Michigan State are Division I except for football. MSU offers menÃ¢â¬â¢s football, menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball, menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s track, menÃ¢â¬â¢s baseball, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s softball, and menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s cheerleading. MSU also offers many intramural sports (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Michigan State University offers many clubs to its students. MSU has a drama club, marching band, choral group, radio and television club, newspaper club, and national fraternities and sororities (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). MSU provides prime housing. On campus residency is required for a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s freshman year (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Coed dorms are available as well as women only dorms and disabled students dorms (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). Michigan State offers services to students. According to PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Year Colleges, there is a health clinic available to MSU students, psychiatric counseling, and legal services. There is also a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s center. MSU provides twenty four hour emergency response and transportation services. Also, self defense workshops are available (PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. 473). MSU offers top rate classes and degrees in forensic science. According to Ã¢â¬Å"School of Criminal Justice,Ã¢â¬ the MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Forensic Science is provided by the Michigan State School of Criminal Justice. Applicants for the degree must have at least a 3.0 to apply. One must also have a degree in a lesser or related field such as physical or natural science (Ã¢â¬Å"School.Ã¢â¬ n.p.). MSU offers a degree in forensic chemistry. To earn a degree, one must take the following classes: Advanced Analytical Chemistry II, Survey in Forensic Science, Forensic Chemistry and Microscopic Evidence, Scanning Electron Microscopy/X-Ray Analysis, and Forensic Serology (Ã¢â¬Å"School.Ã¢â¬ n.p.). INTERESTS AND NEEDS Furthermore, forensic science does fit my needs. It pays a decent amount of money and will give me a comfortable lifestyle. Forensic Science involves a lot of science and chemistry, which I love to do. Also, forensic scientists help people by assisting in the justice process, which I think is very rewarding. CLOSING In conclusion, forensic science is a very challenging career. If a person is interested in becoming a forensic science, it is going to take a lot more than just a love of the TV show CSI.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Strategies for the Analysis of Big Data CHAPTER: 1 INRODUCTION General Day by day amount of data generation is increasing in drastic manner. Wherein to describe the data which is in the amount of zetta byte popular term used is Ã¢â¬Å"Big dataÃ¢â¬ . Government, companies and many organizations try to obtain and store data about their citizens and customers in order to know them better and predict the customer behavior. The big example is of Social networking websites which generate new data each and every second and managing such a huge data is one of the major challenges companies are facing. Disruption is been caused due to the huge data which is stored in data warehouses is in a raw format, in order to produce usable information from this raw data, its proper analysis and processing is to be done. Many of the tools are in progress to handle such a large amount of data in short time. Apache Hadoop is one of the java based programming framework used for processing large data sets in distributed computer environment. Hadoop is useful and being used in types of system where multiple nodes are present which can process terabytes of data. Hadoop uses its own file system HDFS which facilitates fast transfer of data which can sustain node failure and avoid system failure as whole. Hadoop uses Map Reduce algorithm which breaks down the big data into smaller part and performs the operations on it. Various technologies will come in hand-in-hand to accomplish this task such as Spring Hadoop Data Framework for the basic foundations and running of the Map-Reduce jobs, Apache Maven for distributed building of the code, REST Web services for the communication, and lastly Apache Hadoop for distributed processing of the huge dataset. Literature Survey There are many of analysis techniques but six types of analysis we should know are: Descriptive Exploratory Inferential Predictive Causal Mechanistic Descriptive Descriptive analysis technique is use for statistical calculation. It is use for large volume of data set. In this analysis technique only use for univariate and binary analysis. It is only explain for Ã¢â¬Å"what, who, when, whereÃ¢â¬ not a caused. Limitation of descriptive analysis technique it cannot help to find what causes a particular inspiration, performance and amount. This type of technique is use for only Observation and Surveys. Exploratory Exploratory means investigation of any problem or case which is provides approaching of research. The research meant provide a small amount of information. It may use variety of method like interview; cluster conversation and testing which is use for gaining information. In particular technique useful for defining future studies and question. Why future studies because exploratory technique we use old data set. Inferential Inferential data analysis technique is allowed to study sample and make simplification of population data set. It can be used for trial speculation and important part of technical research. Statistics are used for descriptive technique and effect of self-sufficient or reliant variable. In this technique show some error because we not get accurate sampling data. Predictive Predictive analysis it is one of the most important technique it can be used for sentimental analysis and depend on predictive molding. It is very hard mainly about future references. We can use that technique for likelihood some more companies are use this technique like a Yahoo, EBay and Amazon this all company are provide a publically data set we can use and perform investigation. Twitter also provides data set and we separated positive negative and neutral category. Causal Casual meant incidental we determine key point of given casual and effect of correlation between variables. Casual analysis use in market for profound analysis. We can used in selling price of product and various parameter like opposition and natural features etc. This type of technique use only in experimental and simulation based simulation means we can use mathematical fundamental and related to real existence scenario. So we can say that in casual technique depend on single variable and effect of activities result. Mechanistic Last and most stiff analysis technique. Why it is stiff because it is used in a biological purpose such study about human physiology and expand our knowledge of human infection. In this technique we use to biological data set for analysis after perform investigation that give a result of human infection. CHAPTER: 2 AREA OF WORK Hadoop framework is used by many big companies like GOOGLE, IBM, YAHOOfor applications such as search engine in India only one company use Hadoop that is Ã¢â¬Å"Adhar schemeÃ¢â¬ . 2.1 Apache Hadoop goes realtime at Facebook. At Facebook used to Hadoop echo system it is combination of HDFS and Map Reduce. HDFS is Hadoop distributed file system and Map Reduce is script of any language like a java, php, and python and so on. This are two components of Hadoop HDFS used for storage and Map Reduce just reduce to immense program in simple form. Why facebook is used because Hadoop response time fast and high latency. In facebook millions of user online at a time if suppose they share a single server so it is work load is high then faced a many problem like server crash and down so tolerate that type of problem facebook use Hadoop framework. First big advantage in Hadoop it is used distributed file system thatÃ¢â¬â¢s help for achieve fast access time. Facbook require very high throughput and large storage disk. The large amount of data is being read and written from the disk sequentially, for these workloads. Facebook data is unstructured date we canÃ¢â¬â¢t manage in row and column so it is used distributed f ile system. In distributed file system data access time fast and recovery of data is good because one disk (Data node) goes to down other one is work so we can easily access data what we want. Facebook generate a huge amount of data not only data it is real time data which change in micro second. Hadoop is managed data and mining of the data. Facebook is used new generation of storage and Mysql is good for read performance, but suffer from low written throughput and the other hand Hadoop is fast read or write operation. 2.2. Yelp: uses AWS and Hadoop Yelp originally depended upon to store their logs, along with a single node local instance of Hadoop. When Yelp made the giant RAIDs Redundant Array Of Independent disk move Amazon Elastic Map Reduce, they replaced the (Amazon S3) and immediately transferred all Hadoop The company also uses Amazon jobs to Amazon Elastic Map Reduce. Yelp uses Amazon S3 to store daily huge amount of logs and photos,. Elastic Map Reduce to power approximately 30 separate batch RAIDs with Amazon Simple Storage Service scripts, most of those generating around 10GB of logs per hour processing the logs. Features powered by Amazon Elastic Map Reduce include: People Who Viewed this Also Viewed Review highlights Auto complete as you type on search Search spelling suggestions Top searches Ads Yelp uses Map Reduce. You can break down a big job into little pieces Map Reduce is about the simplest way. Basically, mappers read lines of input, and spit out key. Each key and all of its corresponding values are sent to a reducer. CHAPTER: 3 THE PROPOSED SCHEMES We overcome the problem of analysis of big data using Apache Hadoop. The processing is done in some steps which include creating a server of required configuration using Apache hadoop on single node cluster. Data on the cluster is stored using Mongo DB which stores data in the form of key: value pairs which is advantage over relational database for managing large amount of data. Various languages like python ,java ,php allows writing scripts for stored data from collections on the twitter in Mongo DB then after stored data export to json, csv and txt file which then can be processed in Hadoop as per userÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement. Hadoop jobs are written in framework this jobs implement Map Reduce program for data processing. Six jobs are implemented data processing in a location based social networking application. The record of the whole session has to be maintained in log file using aspect programming in python. The output produced after data processing in the hadoop job, has to be exp orted back to the database. The old values to the database have to be updated immediately after processing, to avoid loss of valuable data. The whole process is automated by using python scripts and tasks written in tool for executing JAR files. CHAPTER: 4 METHOD AND MATERIAL 4.1Ã INSTALL HADOOP FRAMWORK Install and configure Hadoop framework after installation we perform operation using Map Reduce and the Hadoop Distributed File System. 4.1.1 Supported Platforms Linux LTS(12.4) it is a open source operating system hadoop is support many platforms but Linux is best one. Win32/64 Hadoop support both type of platform 32bit or 64 bit win32 is not chains assembly platforms. 4.1.2 Required Software Any version of JDK (JAVA) Secure shell (SSH) local host installed which is use for data communication. Mongo DB (Database) These requirements are Linux system. 4.1.4Ã Prepare the Hadoop Cluster Extract the downloaded Hadoop file (hadoop-0.23.10). In the allocation, edit the file csbin/hadoop-envsh and set environment variable of JAVA and HAdoop. Try the following command: $ sbin/hadoop Three types of mode existing in Hadoop cluster. Local Standalone Mode Pseudo Distributed Mode Fully Distributed Mode Local Standalone Mode Local standalone mode in this mode we install only normal mode Hadoop is configure to run on not distributed mode. Pseudo-Distributed Mode Hadoop is run on single node cluster I am perform that operation and configure to hadoop on single node cluster and hadoop demons run on separate java process. Configuration we can change some files and configure Hadoop. Files are core.xml, mapreduce.xml and hdfs.xml all these files change and run Hadoop. Fully-Distributed Mode In this mode setting up fully-distributed mode non trivial cluster. 4.2Ã Data Collection The twitter data anthology program captures three attribute. 1) User id 2) Twitter user (who sent Tweet) 3) Twitter text The Twitter Id is used to extract tweets sent to the specified id. In our analysis; we collect the tweets sent to sachin tendulkar. We used Twitter APIs, to collect tweets sent to Sachin. The arrangement of the Twitter data that is composed. The key attributes Which we mine are: User id, Tweet text and Tweet User (who sent Tweet) save all key attribute in Mongo DB .Mongo DB is database where al tweet is saved. After collecting all data we export to csv and text file this file is use for analysis. Fig. 1. Twitter data collection procedure Extracting twitter data using python In this python code firstly create developer account then we get a consumer key, consumer secret, access token and access token secret this are important for twitter api using that key we find all tweets. Initialize a connection to the Mongo DB instance connectivity to Data Base in this code tweet db is data base name mongo db support to collection. >show dbs That commend we see all database those are present in mongo db. >use Data Base name Select particular data base we use. >db Db command use to which data base is open. >show collection This command shows all collection. It means show all table. >db.tweet.find () Use to show all data store in particular data base. >db.tweet.find ().count () Use to that command how much tweet store in your data base. CHAPTER: 5 SENTIMENTAL ANALYSIS OFBIG DATA Last and foremost as well as most important part of data analysis is extracting twitterÃ¢â¬â¢s data. Supervised and unsupervised techniques are types of techniques that are used for analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Big dataÃ¢â¬ . Sentimental analysis has come to play a key role in text mining application for customer relationship, brand and product position, consumer attitude detection and market research. In recent advance there is several promising new direction for developing and advance sentimental analysis research. Sentimental classification identify whether the semantic direction of the given text is optimistic, pessimistic or unbiased. Most of open approach relies on supervised learning models they classified positive and negative option only. Three ways of machine learning techniques NaÃ ¯ve Bayes, SVM and Maximum Entropy Taxonomy do not perform well on sentimental classification. Sentimental analysis techniques may help researchers to study on the Internet. They would help to find o ut whether a given text is subjective or objective as well as whether a subjective passage contains optimistic or pessimistic opinions. Supervised Machine Learning techniques use class documents for classification. The machine learning approach treat the opinion classification problem as a topic based content classification problems. Comparison between NaÃ ¯ve Bayes, Maximum Entropy and SVM for sentimental classification, they achieve best precision using SVM. CHAPTER: 6 SCREENSHOT Browser view: This view only use for browser view that show log file of data node and name node. Hadoop cluster on: In this screenshot show on data node name node that means properly install and configure single node hadoop cluster. Data base view: In this screenshot we extract twitter data and store Mongo DB. Mongo DB is a data base where all tweets are stored. How many Tweets store in Data Base: CHAPTER: 7 CONCLUSIONS We have urbanized an architecture that uses PYTHON and Mongo DB in amalgamation with Twitter APIs to study tweets sent to the specific user. We use our architecture to get the positive, negative and neutral, analysis the number of re tweets and the name and Id of the users sending the tweets. Finding all data we analysis them can be used in conjunction with available results on queuing theory, to study the temporary and stable state performance of social networks. The proposed architecture can be used for a monitor correlation among user behaviors and their locations. The application of obtain outcome to study the development of population in under research. In sentimental analysis mining on large datasets using a NaÃ ¯ve Bayes classifier with the Hadoop echo system. We configure Hadoop in single node cluster and we also provide how to fetch or extracting twitter data using any language of api but in Hadoop cluster file system can do decent job even in the Big Data analysis domain.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Perception To see a scorned, beaten, and crucified man, lying dead in the arms of his mother is an image, which can inspire overwhelming emotions within the heart of an observer. Yet, for the longest time I've had such difficulty looking at Michelangelo's art in this way. To me, art has never been about expressing oneself or conveying a message to others, but simply creating an image for the sake of beauty and perfection. When I look at Michelangelo's art I see a cold, solid mass of marble carved by the skilled hands of a master, Rather than this work of great beauty, capable of eliciting a deeply emotional response. I look at it in terms of the techniques Michelangelo used the understanding he had of the human form, to render a piece ultimately comprising precision and realism. It has been upon these standards that I have based my concept of what art is. In my eyes, art has always been just a unique ability that I have. I feel driven by it, not to express some deep emotion, but almost as an obsession to perfect my own ability. Every stroke of a brush and every motion I make are to make what I've created more detailed, graceful, and real. I'm only now beginning to realize how much more there is to art than what I had previously understood. When I look at a piece of my work, I see the detail and realism of it, yet somehow I feel that these aspects are all that it possesses. I wonder whether or not I've almost turned my sense of art into a science that lacks the essential characteristics of art, which are expression and emotion. Somehow now I have begun to see that the strictness and precision of my art truly is an expression of who I am, and that through it, one can understand how I perceive the world around me. Personally I feel uncomfortable in a world where nearly every aspect of our lives is becoming less clearly defined and where right and wrong are continually forsaken for a vague sense of truth. So in some respects, art provides me with the sense of structure, order, and continuity, which I feel, is lacking in modern life.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Clean Up Your Room! Short Story by: Laura Anne Gilman Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ever get woken up by your mom or robot, and they want you to clean up your room right away. Well in this novel Laura Anne Gilman makes this come true. She has been an author/editor for quite some time. In this particular book she makes the setting in a house. In this house a robot named Mum (Maternal Uplink and Monitor) controls every thing. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Clean Up Your Room! Even though it is a plain title it goes with the story. On one early morning the main character Jessy gets woken up. Usually she sleeps in forever, but not this morning. She is working on this program (MUM) to make it perfect. Made for parents to have the perfect baby sitter that they can trust. Mum can clean, cook, and make you exercise. But it always seems to have an error in it. Except this morning. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This book is an Internal Conflict. Based on important decisions Jessy has to make. As Mum keeps surprising her with all that she knows she wants to keep going along with it. To see if she has created what she hopes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jessy has a partner Greg that helps program Mum. In the book it talks about him creating the tone of voice the Mum uses. When Mum tells Jessy to come to breakfast she uses a deep voice. Mum also doest want her to be working at the table. In some cases if she is on the phone but supposed to be exercising, she will disconnect the phones. Jessy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like this and tells mum. Ã¢â¬Å" I am the programmer you are the program. You have to consult me when completing an objective.Ã¢â¬ That is an complication that moves central action. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the end of the book they are ready to put Mum on the market. Maybe it will be a great success and very useful. Both Jessy and Greg or excited and canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait to see the outcome. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to review this short story. In my opinion this was a good Science Fiction book. Clean Up Your Room! :: essays research papers Clean Up Your Room! Short Story by: Laura Anne Gilman Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ever get woken up by your mom or robot, and they want you to clean up your room right away. Well in this novel Laura Anne Gilman makes this come true. She has been an author/editor for quite some time. In this particular book she makes the setting in a house. In this house a robot named Mum (Maternal Uplink and Monitor) controls every thing. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Clean Up Your Room! Even though it is a plain title it goes with the story. On one early morning the main character Jessy gets woken up. Usually she sleeps in forever, but not this morning. She is working on this program (MUM) to make it perfect. Made for parents to have the perfect baby sitter that they can trust. Mum can clean, cook, and make you exercise. But it always seems to have an error in it. Except this morning. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This book is an Internal Conflict. Based on important decisions Jessy has to make. As Mum keeps surprising her with all that she knows she wants to keep going along with it. To see if she has created what she hopes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jessy has a partner Greg that helps program Mum. In the book it talks about him creating the tone of voice the Mum uses. When Mum tells Jessy to come to breakfast she uses a deep voice. Mum also doest want her to be working at the table. In some cases if she is on the phone but supposed to be exercising, she will disconnect the phones. Jessy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like this and tells mum. Ã¢â¬Å" I am the programmer you are the program. You have to consult me when completing an objective.Ã¢â¬ That is an complication that moves central action. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the end of the book they are ready to put Mum on the market. Maybe it will be a great success and very useful. Both Jessy and Greg or excited and canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait to see the outcome. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to review this short story. In my opinion this was a good Science Fiction book.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Education is a basic requirement for inculcating civic, moral and intellectual faculties of a human being. While imparting education in a public setup is the commonest of all methodologies adopted worldwide, learning at home under the guidance of parents and/or professional teachers is also a widespread practice. Popularly referred to as homeschooling, this system of learning has come to the fore replacing formal educational methodologies. The history of homeschooling dates back to the 1920s, but the real revolution occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s when the liberal alternative school movement was set rolling. Researching into the topic, it is evident that most parents opting for homeschooling fall under radical socialists and naturalists who do not have faith in the bureaucratic setup of the American society. Moreover, the gasping nature of fierce competition has also contributed to the withdrawal from traditional educational means. There are legal liabilities and the issue of compulsory schooling attendance as far as public schooling is concerned. Albeit the environmental aspects and the mold of teaching are arguably in proximity with what can be termed as ideal in a public education system, many parents in the United States of America deem it an added advantage for their kids that they should gain access to a comprehensive educational repertoire at home. In matters of homeschooling, the legal issues involved with affiliation and certification are taken care of correspondence schools or umbrella schools. What set homeschooling distinctly apart from the conventional modes of education are facilities of unit studies, child-oriented educational materials and above all, constant parental supervision. This essay is going to discuss elaborately on the efficacy of homeschooling and its relevance in the hustling ways of modern world. All the major school of thoughts propagated by scholars and researchers will be thoroughly reviewed, thus allowing for the development of a set of viewpoints on homeschooling. The prevalence of homeschooling in the United States of America has been such in the past decade or so that it has been made legal in many states. In fact today it is widely regarded to be a perfect alternative mode of teaching at the K-12 level (Cooper 109). The media too has focused on the issue rigorously and has brought about a remarkable change in the mindset of even the most orthodox of parents and educators. Going by sheer statistics, 300, 000 children were taught at home in 1990. This number increased almost with a vertical leap by the end of 1998 when there were more than 1. 5 millions of homeschooled children across the country (Saba & Gattis 1). Since the US governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s educational policy allows for autonomy of sorts for each state, the process of imbibing any new measure is relatively easier. The designated council or board of a particular state can decide for themselves which method suits young learners the most. Accordingly, each state is designated with certain number of grants or permissions by virtue of which they can permit homeschooling. The results just speak for themselves as a vast majority of homeschooled children excel remarkably well in a broad spectrum of academic disciplines, ranging from winning the national spelling bees to earning themselves coveted degrees at the leading universities in the country. Now before delving deep into various argumentative doctrines on homeschooling, letÃ¢â¬â¢s just look into the basics of this rapidly evolving trend. The first question we are going to deal with involves the reason behind homeschooling. What are the unique aspects of homeschooling? Why do people tend to prefer this mode of education over public schooling? Due to the independent, state-specific educational system in America, public schools are accessible to all free of charge. For working parents not belonging to the elite segments of the society, the rationale behind choosing public schools is quite self-explanatory. But the growing trend of homeschooling calls for our attention and makes us inquisitive to investigate into the root of educational philosophies. First and foremost, fostering a child at home demands a persistent level of commitment for both parents. It not only helps the child learn in a known environment, but also strengthens the family togetherness. Since a child spends most of its time at home, the well cultivated families do not wish to assign the task of imparting education to external teachers (Stevens 30). It is purely a question of family values that a child should learn from its parents and not from those who do not share their personal spaces. Besides, many parents are guided by stern religious beliefs and want their children to follow the same paths. In public schools, children may confront teachers, instructors or fellow students with different religious faiths. So the parents feel safer with homeschooling. Another extremely valid reason behind homeschooling involves the learning environment of public schools. The quality of education in a public institution is bound to suffer due to large number of students and inadequacy of teaching tools. Albeit the student-teacher ratio is quite healthy in American public schools especially at the primary level, it still is not enough for every child to get the required attention. Moreover, children studying at public schools are taught a similar curriculum. If a particular child has different fields of interest, it is not encouraged to develop skills and knowledge on those lines. The imaginative faculties of mind slowly become blunt and ineffectual due to the institutionalized methods of teaching. Homeschooling, on the other hand, is helpful for identifying a childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and unique areas of talent. Hence, education does not become a loathsome burden for the children. By relating to what they are taught, they can enjoy while they learn (Rockett 138). Most families belonging to minority groups regard homeschooling to be the best available option for their kids. This is because those children are hardly paid attention to by their local teachers at public schools (Saba & Gattis 3). It is never wise to send children with physical or mental deformities to public schools. The span and extent of attention they need can never be expected from teachers who have to look after a class of pupils. It is far better to keep those children at home and build up the required infrastructure with teaching aids. Hiring a teacher at home is a plausible solution in such cases. By resolving to one-on-one teaching modes, a challenged kidÃ¢â¬â¢s potential can be maximized. News of massacres, illegal drug trafficking and teen sexuality hit the headlines frequently in the US. Researches show that parents who are aware of these events choose homeschooling to ensure safety of their kids. These parents feel they can control the company of their children if they learn from home. Moreover, in the US public schools, many children hail from troubled families and tend to act violently and in a bullying manner towards other students. Contours of homeschooling decidedly relieve of such headaches. The legal aspects of homeschooling are still subject to a lot of debate and controversy. Given the parochial setup of homeschools, it is elementary to infer that they must be stripped off many benefits available at public schools, including the system of tests. The existing rights in favor of homeschooling in the United States of America were hard earned. It was by the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict in the 1920s that enabled the states to intervene into educational affairs. Homeschooling, a fringe and distant possibility during those days, has undoubtedly come a long way. Keeping in mind the thesis question of this paper, it is now time to ponder over certain theoretical conjectures on learning in general. The schools of thought on learning and education are, however, subject to a varied degree of hypothesis. Scholars are yet to arrive at a stable perception as to which methodology of teaching augurs well for most young students. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive developmental theory is one of the seminal works of literature throwing a searching light into the complex processes of assimilation and deliverance for young, pliant minds. But since this theory was formed primarily from heuristic studies, its accuracy is questionable. Nevertheless, many later theories on education and learning are grounded on the assumptions made by this theory. According to Jean Piaget, the three main pillars of learning are organization, equilibrium and progression. The basis of his argument concentrated on the predictability of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive formation. To put it differently, he pointed out that a child develops newer thought patterns with age and maturity. It is inherent in a child that it should search for newer elements in everything it sees. Known as organization, this process is responsible for accumulation of knowledge. What directly relates to this process is a cognitive phenomenon called schemes. This phenomenon is involved with preparing a mental picture of things to do. In other words, when a kid is asked to perform a lengthy multiplication, he/she prepares a mental framework as to how to go about the task in an organized manner. The next phenomenon comes when the child explores a better way to carry out a task. It is called adaptation. When new information is passed on, the child has to first of all Ã¢â¬ËtakeÃ¢â¬â¢ it in before it can be processed and assimilated (Clements 2). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive developmental theory has crucial implementations in the context of choosing the best curriculum for homeschooling. His insightful analysis of the role of parents in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education helps in decision making as to how children learn. Do they imitate what they see, or do parents need to play a more guiding part in showing their children what and where to look for? Since this system of education does not involve social interaction which is so typical of classroom teaching, extra care has to be taken in devising learning plans. Diagnosing the intelligence quotient of a child is just as important as judging the level of prior education, should the student be an advanced learner. The final module for course works and other study materials should be prepared after careful scrutiny of the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament. As a novel research effort in the field of educational psychology and motivation theory, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s findings indeed simplified the understanding of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive bloc. The second argument that can be propelled concerns the role of academic materials or learning resources in the curricula of pupils. What is often seen in public schooling environments is that a vast array of course materials covering every subject are available. This is particularly favorable as far as step-by-step learning is concerned. The student can make the required shift from one level to another without having to skip any of the important learning modules. But espousing homeschooling methodologies often throw up a quandary for parents as to the suitability of the course materials at hand (Perry 54). This occurs mainly because of the lack of awareness about academic resources for a given standard. This usually happens for the first child in a household with more than one child. Due to lack of knowledge and experience, parents feel uncertain about the proper educational grooming techniques. Hence for the beginners, it generally takes a couple of years to gain command over the objectives and modes of teaching, including Ã¢â¬ËunschoolingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËphonicsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Suarez 1). It is followed the most important part of the system, e. . , selecting the right tools and integrating them to create a congenial environment for learning at home. Unit study, for example, is a widely trusted educational methodology for homeschooling. The depth of this methodology and the fun of learning associated with it make for an ideal module for the beginners. Several subjects such as Mathematics, Social Sciences, History, Geography and Theology are combined together under a common natural or to pic-specific theme like water, animals, or ancient Egypt. For instance, if the academic discipline to be discussed in a particular sitting is Mathematics, the child would be introduced to the story of ancient Egypt and how Mathematics flourished over there. No doubt, the commonality of the central topic generates the fun of unit study methods. The young learner can relate just one topic to a variety of academic disciplines. However, it is to be made sure that the thematic topic should have connections with all the subjects. Study of languages occupies an important place in unit study. Not only does it help in communicating, it also gives the children a broad view of the world and people around them (Field 85). Far from just as an educational ploy to bring out the untapped resources of a child, the societal significance of homeschooling can never be underrated. It is imperative that we understand the significance of homeschooling from a twofold perspective. Firstly, the coziness of the family bondage gets stronger and closer with all the members of it spending time together. This is precisely the reason why many mainstream parents are falling back on homeschooling as the prospective mode of education for their kids. However, some shortcomings of this educational model are also there, especially the accusation that little kids do not get the chance to interact socially with others. This lack of socializing sometimes tells upon the mental health of even the most meritorious boy in a pool of ordinary geeks who, after all, know how to enjoy the little things life has to offer. But it is a minor glitch in a far greater canvas of a revolutionary and highly individualistic learning framework.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Imagination has the power to encourage When walking In the kitchen you hear the footsteps tap clink clang, tap clink clang from a young man age twenty-three, tall, lean but not too frail. Continuation footsteps entering the sauteÃ © station, pans moving side to side, gas burner being constantly turned to high or low, and tongs being flipped around all happening In a quickly motion. Top chef walks In says, Ã¢â¬Å"Get to work, start with Immaculate the sauteÃ © station immediately. Yes, chefÃ¢â¬ , He quickly replied. Wishing, whooshing, flawless swiping, drying off the dishes. He sighs, leaning against the kitchen counter, eyes focusing on the delectable food being made across the kitchen by top chef, wishing he was Just as great as he is. Dimming away but into his perfect fantasy world he suddenly is amazingly talented with culinary art master pieces looking like true art, fantastic smelling the aromatic but savory and tasting the juiciness, rich delectable labors.His top chef imp ress by his work of art, astonishment of passion all into the food. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got an important announcement to make, are you all listening? Ã¢â¬Ë Top Chef says Immediately charged. Quickly everyone stop Immediately and looks at chef. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm deciding to give someone a promotion to be top chef, whose earn It. This person amazing, talented, and passionateÃ¢â¬ , Chef describes. He thinks to himself, Ã¢â¬Å"I'm going to be top chef; I'm going to be top chefÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The new top chef IsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Bout to announce by top chef himself. Someone walk up to him and snap, snap he instantly comes out from his perfect fantasy world. Ã¢â¬Å"Get to cleaningÃ¢â¬ His co-worker says. He continues to cleanse, finishing he goes into an empty station, sneakily and starts to combined flavors, experimenting them. He's encourages to prove himself to top chef by doing this and successfully he could impress his top chef. With enough effort and hard work, even experimenting could all lead to su ccessful/ great things.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Initial thesis statement: Is salvation Ã¢â¬Å"by faith aloneÃ¢â¬ (according to Luther) or must there be a Ã¢â¬Å"cooperation of faith and worksÃ¢â¬ in salvation (according to the Roman Catholic tradition)? My initial answer to this question before I began this study was that of the Roman Catholic tradition, one must have the combination of both faith and works. Although faith plays a big part of salvation, I tend to believe without both works and faith you may not receive it. 2) First view: Salvation is Ã¢â¬Å"by faith aloneÃ¢â¬ is held to be true by many people.Perhaps the most popular figure from the European Reformation, Martin Luther, noted for his doctrine of justification by faith alone was one who believed that only faith was needed for salvation, and he also held true that God provided everything that is necessary for justification. In 1528 Luther spoke out about salvation saying, Ã¢â¬Å"This faith alone, when based upon the sure promises of God, must save us; as our text clearly explains. And in the light of it all, they must become fools who have taught us other ways to become godly. Ã¢â¬ ¦Man may forever do as he will, he can never enter heaven unless God takes the first step with his Word, which offers him divine grace and enlightens his heart so as to get upon the right way. Ã¢â¬ Another important person who was on the side of salvation through faith alone is Paul. He uses a passage from Ephesians to support of his idea. Ã¢â¬Å"For it is by grace you have been saved through faith-and this is not from yourself, it is the gift of God-not by works, so that no one can boast. Ã¢â¬ He puts the emphasis on the fact that salvation is by faith alone.Paul later goes on to say Ã¢â¬Å"For we are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s handiwork, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do. Ã¢â¬ That being said, we as humans are created to do good works, but reach salvation through faith alone. Yet another passage suggesting tha t we must only have faith is Ã¢â¬Å"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. Ã¢â¬ 3) Opposing view: In contrast to LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s view, the Roman Catholic view states that salvation is by a Ã¢â¬Å"cooperation of faith and works. James 2:17-18: In the same way, faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead. But someone will say, Ã¢â¬Å"You have faith; I have deeds. Ã¢â¬ Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by my deeds. This creates a big contradictory in the bible. Although some may say deeds are not needed, in this very passage we are told without them our justification ceases to exist. One verse that simply breaks down and gives a great example of salvation through faith and works is James 2:20-26 that states: Ã¢â¬Å"20 You foolish person, do you want evidence that faith without deeds is useless?Was not our father Abraham considered ri ghteous for what he did when he offered his son Isaac on the altar? 22 You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did. 23 And the scripture was fulfilled that says, Ã¢â¬Å"Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,Ã¢â¬ and he was called GodÃ¢â¬â¢s friend. 24 You see that a person is considered righteous by what they do and not by faith alone. 25 In the same way, was not even Rahab the prostitute considered righteous for what she did when she gave lodging to the spies and sent them off in a different direction? 6 As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without deeds is dead. Ã¢â¬ In this passage are two great examples of two different people that receive salvation through both their work and faith in God. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know exactly what was going to happen when they listened to the word of God and did as he told them, but through faith in him they were able to do so and reach j ustification. They had never seen God but were put in the position to decide whether or not he existed. 4) Ã¢â¬Å"Critical RealistÃ¢â¬ : With respect to this doctrine I agree with the Roman Catholic tradition that salvation must have a cooperation of faith and works.The reason I still hold this to be true is that throughout the bible and other readings the support behind the idea of works and faith both being crucial to receiving salvation is much stronger than those of Luther. Luther made some great points that through faith, works is automatically going to be inclusive. He also made the point that God makes the first step to giving you all the things necessary to obtain salvation. However, I believe that if someone is faithful in the lord God and wants to be welcome to salvation, then in the rocess of life the works will come naturally to that person. On the other hand if someone is said to be faithful in God and do something harmful or bad to another person, then that so-called faithful person has gone against his/her faith in doing so causing them to fade away from salvation. I have learned from LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s view that there are many supportive articles and passages. I have also learned that there are great ideas in both of these arguments, however when it comes down to choosing one of the following the Roman Catholic tradition.My initial has not been strengthened nor weakened after doing the research and studying both sides. Both sides hold a firm argument, but the Roman Catholic view just seemed to catch my attention more. 5) Final Thesis Statement: This doctrine helps answering the initial question by giving information about both of the opinions and going into detailed arguments. I would say that the answer to the initial question is the to obtain salvation, one must have a combination of faith and works.Work Cited Ã¢â¬Å"On Faith & Coming to Christ, by Martin Luther. Ã¢â¬ <http://homepage. mac. om/shanerosenthal/reformationink/mlonfaith. htm>. McGrath, Alister E. Historical Theology: an Introduction to the History of Christian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. Print. Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon. Protestants & Catholics: Do They Now Agree? Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1995. Print. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. McGrath, Alister E. Historical Theology: an Introduction to the History of Christian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. Print. [ 2 ]. Ã¢â¬Å"On Faith & Coming to Christ, by Martin Luther. Ã¢â¬ . [ 3 ]. Ephesians 2:8-9 [ 4 ]. Ephesians 2:10 Salvation A. Name the central character, protagonist Ã¢â¬â The main character is Langston Huges. (The author) B. Describe his/her key qualities or personality traits (complicated, stereotype, unique, round, flat, etc. ): Langston Huges is seemed as heÃ¢â¬â¢s full of integrity, honest to himself, sensitive, and observant. C. Who is another important character in the story, an antagonist? Ã¢â¬â Other important characters mentioned in this story are the Aunt, his friend Westley, and the pastor. II. Setting or time and place: Identify where and when the story takes place Ã¢â¬â The place is at bible church when Huges was 13 years old. III. Plot: A. What structure or design does the sequence of events follow: chronological, spatial, or order of importance? Ã¢â¬â The structure that is used in this story is chronological. A. Discuss the opening, rising action, climax (twist, surprise, turning point, and unexpected development), resolution and the denouement Ã¢â¬â The story started out in church and Huges was put into a special meeting to be seen by Jesus. You were told you were saved when you saw a light and before you knew it all the kids except Huges and Westley were remaining not being able to see the light. Westley got tired and pretended to be saved and Huges remained there for a while until he made a decision to be like Westley and got up to be pretended to be saved. Climax: When he cries late at night in bed. IV. Conflict/resolution (individual vs. individual; individual vs. society; individual vs. nature; individual vs. self? ): Huges is dealing with society so it would be individual vs society. A. What major problem is the main character faced with? Huges was attempting to be seen by Jesus and was trying to wait for a light to be saved. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s taking things too literally. B. How does the main character attempt to solve this major problem? Langston Huges gets up and says he saw a light from Jesus. He tries to solve it by making confessions. V. Point of view: (First person, third person observer, third person omniscient? )- First person VI. Message or lesson: Can you think of appropriate expressions, proverbs or maxims that capsulate the main lesson? (Stand your ground): When you want to introduce an abstract subject to a child, you have to approach it easy and not so literal. VII. Theme: controlling or main idea: (brevity of life, loneliness, human suffering as a result of world conflicts, etc. The theme is about religion. (Religious experience as related by a child)
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Ceramicss are inorganic and nonmetallic stuffs formed from metallic and nonmetallic elements whose interatomic bonds are either ionic or largely ionic. Many of the ceramics desirable belongingss are obtained normally by a high temperature heat intervention. Ceramicss are made up of two or more elements. In a crystalline construction is more complex than that of metals. When the bonding is largely ionic the crystal construction is made up of positively charged metallic ions, cations, negatively charged nonmetallic ions and anions. When the ions are bonded together the overall charge must be impersonal. To hold a stable system the anions in the construction that surround a cation must be in contact with that peculiar ion. There needs to be a ratio of the cation radius to the anion radius for the coordination and apprehension of the constructions geometry. If for illustration there is a deficiency of coordination, the cation would be falsely incased by the anions therefore doing a prost ration in its expected structural stableness. There are many different types of constructions exist for ceramics. One crystal construction is the AX type where there are an equal figure of cations and anions. Another crystal construction that exists for ceramics has a different figure of cations and anions but still has a impersonal charge because the ions have different magnitudes of charge is called an AmXp construction. An AmBnXp construction has more than one type of cation, represented by A and B but merely one type of anion. This type of construction is besides seen in close wadding of ions in metals. Imperfections occur in the crystal construction of ceramics really similar to metal structural defects. Defects can happen in each of the two ions of the construction. At any clip there can be cation, anion interstitials, cation or anion vacancies. Most defects or imperfectnesss occur in braces to keep the electroneutrality. A Frenkel defect is a cation vacancy and cation interst itial brace. When a cation and anion vacancy brace occurs they are called a Schottky defect. Ceramicss can besides hold drosss in the crystal construction like metals.Figure 12.21 gives a conventional diagram of the Frenkel and a Schotkey defects ( pg 435 ) .In many instances ceramics tend to be really brickle which can take to ruinous failure with really few marks of weariness. This is due to the fact that ceramics absorb really small energy before they fracture. When ceramics are subjected to a tensile emphasis, they about ever break before any fictile distortion takes topographic point. Fracture occurs because of the formation and extension of clefts perpendicular to the applied burden. Ceramicss have a greater ability to defy compaction than tenseness. The modulus of snap lessenings with more pores in the ceramic stuff. When there are many pores in the stuff they act as emphasis concentrators which expose the stuff to weak part. However, ceramics are really difficult and are goo d for applications where abradant or crunching action is needed. Most polymers are organic and are composed of hydrocarbons with interatomic forces that are represented as covalent bonds. Most polymers ironss are rather long and really complex. These long molecules are made up of repetition units which are repeated along the concatenation. The smaller repetition unit is called a monomer. Polymers can be made up of a individual repetition unit, called a homopolymer, or two or more different reiterating units called copolymers. Polymers by and large have a really big molecular weight. These molecular ironss tend to hold many kinking, bending, and gyrating along with web with adjacent ironss may happen. This causes the result stuff to be really elastic. Polymer ironss can hold side groups which cause different constellations based on which side and with what regularity they bond. They can show a degree of crystallinity similar to the wadding of the molecular ironss to make an ordered atomic array. This crystal construction can be much more complex than metallic crystal constructions. Defects in polymers besides differ from those found in metals and ceramics. Defects in polymers are linked to the concatenation ends because they are somewhat different than the concatenation itself and emerge from the sections of the crystal. Polymers are really sensitive to strive rate, temperature, and chemical nature of the environment. Different polymers can exhibit different emphasis strain behaviour depending on the compl exness of the molecular concatenation. Certain polymers display a degree of is brickle where break occurs before elastic distortion which is really similar in the instance of ceramics. Another type of polymers is really similar to metals where elastic distortion takes topographic point foremost followed by giving and fictile distortion. A 3rd type is exhibited by elastomers which have wholly elastic and recoverable distortion. Polymers by and large have a lower modulus of snap and tensile strength so metals. Some Polymers can be stretched up to ten times longer than its original province where metals and ceramics can non easy carry through. Polymers exhibit viscoelasticity at temperatures between where elastic and liquid like behaviours are prevailing. Similar to metals and ceramics, polymers can see weirdo. Creep is a clip dependent factor due to deformation under emphasis or elevated temperature. In both ceramics and polymers, creep depends on clip and temperature. Polymers may be malleable or brickle depending on temperature, strain rate, specimen geometry, and manner of lading which is really similar to the belongingss of metals. Polymers are brickle at low temperatures and have somewhat low impact strengths. Polymers can see weariness under a insistent burden. They are by and large softer than metals and ceramics and unlike metals and ceramics, polymer runing occur over a scope of temperatures alternatively at a specific temperature. Metallic elements are a stuff made up of metallic elements that are bonded metallically similar common metal. The negatrons are non bound to any peculiar atom making a matrix of ion nucleuss surrounded by many negatrons. They are really good music directors of heat and electricity where as ceramics and polymers are missing. Polymers and metals are both malleable and are non that brickle though metals besides exhibit a degree of plasticity. Ceramicss are really brittle, they tend to fracture under a burden which means they are missing in ductileness. Polymers are the softest stuff due to their complex construction, while ceramics are the hardest but are non really tough because they fracture before fictile distortion occurs. Polymers plastically deform really easy and have the smallest Young Ã¢â¬Ës modulus. Ceramicss have the highest value because of their crispness and ne'er reach the point of fictile distortion because they would fracture foremost. The values of Young Ã¢â¬Ës mod ulus for metals fall between those for polymers and ceramics. These three stuffs have diverse constructions and exhibit different degrees of defects.Ã¢â¬Å" Alloying, Ã¢â¬ utilizing the term in the broadest sense.Simply an metal is a metal compound that consists of 2 or more metal or nonmetallic elements. These combinations of metallic and non metallic elements finally create new compounds that in consequence show superior structural belongingss as compared to the elements by themselves. The type of metal mixtures is extremely dependent on the coveted mechanical belongings of the stuff. Alloying can be applied to metals, ceramics and polymers where in each particular belongingss are desired. One of the most coveted belongingss of metal metal is the hardenability. A stuff with a high degree of hardness will defy distortion caused by surface indenture or scratch while a stuff with a low hardness degree will deform more easy under similar conditions. The chief factor in a stuff Ã¢â¬Ës hardenability is its martensite ( the rate which austenitized Fe C metals are formed when cooled ) besides content and is related to the sum of C in a stuff. With this application of debasing on metals, the stuff can exhibit greater strain and emphasis oppositions every bit good as snap. These belongingss are favourable when covering with building and fabrication procedures. A ceramic metal is fundamentally a merger of a ceramic with of 2 or more metals. As seen in metal metals, ceramic metals can dwell of dross atoms in a solid province. In ceramic metals an interstitial and substitutional provinces are possible. In an interstitial type, the anion has to be bigger than the dross of the ionic radius. The substitutional dross applies where the dross atom normally forms a cation in the ceramic stuff therefore the host cation will be substituted.Figure 12.23 provides a great ocular representation of interstitial and substitutional types in a ceramic metal ( pg 437 ) .Significantly, to decently accomplish a solid province of solubility for replacing dross atoms, the charge and the ionic size must be as the same as the host ion. If they were different it there would necessitate to be some other manner for the electroneutrality to be maintained within the solid. An easy manner to make this is to make a formation of lattice defects of vacancies or interstitial of both ion types. Cobalt Cr is a perfect illustration of a ceramic metal in which was designed to be used for coronary intercessions therefore because it does non degrade one time placed in the human organic structure. Polymer alloys consist of two or more different types of polymers in a sense blended together. There are a assortment of additives that can be blended or mixed in with the polymer to make the coveted consequence for the stuff. Polymer additives that support the alteration of its physical belongingss are fillers, plasticisers, stabilizers and of class fire retardents. Fillers are by and large introduced to a polymer, when a greater comprehensive strength and thermic stableness is desired. Making these types of metals are really good because they are by and large really easy to make and utilize in their coveted signifier. Plasticizers help better the flexibleness and stamina of polymers by cut downing the hardness and stiffness of the stuff. They are frequently introduced to polymers that are by and large brickle at room temperature. These additives are particularly utile because they by and large lower the glass passage temperature therefore leting the polymer to hold a extent of bend ability. Due to the fact that certain polymers are non resilient to environmental conditions, stabilizers are introduced. They provide stableness and unity against impairment against the mechanical belongingss. The two most common signifiers of environmental impairment are UV exposure and oxidization. A major concern with many polymers is that they are extremely flammable. Fire retardents are introduced to such polymers to cut down the combustibleness of the stuff by interfering with its ability to burn through a gas stage or originating a different burning reaction that generates less heat. This procedure will cut down the temperature that would finally discontinue the combustion procedure.Kirill Shkolnik105940393 ESG 332 Ã¢â¬â R01 Exam # 2 ( Question # 2 )Describe with mention to phase diagrams and disruption theory, how precipitation age hardening can be achieved in aluminium metals.By and large aluminium is a metal with a low degree of denseness compared to other metals. Due to this low degree of denseness, it conducts electricity and heat better than Cu. Aluminums merely over 1200 grades Fahrenheit which is comparably low to other metals. Due to these simple facts, it seems ideal to bond elements such as Ti, Si, Cu, Zn and other stuffs to amplify aluminiums positive properties. The procedure precipitation age hardening can magnify the alloying of aluminium. This procedure involves supersaturating a solid solution precipitating equally dispersed atoms on the aluminium. This will assist halt the motion of disruptions within the metal construction. The basic construct of disruption is the atomic misalignment of atoms in a additive plane. These atomic misalignments affect a whole series of atoms on a plane. The series of misalign atoms form a line called a disruption line. There are two known types of disruption called the prison guard and border disruption. Screw disruption and border disruption are the primary types of disruptions but require a certain sum of each other to happen. By cut downing the sum of disruptions can radically increase the strength in the metal. The procedure of debasing normally makes a pure stuff harder. The procedure of debasing is holding one metal bond with dross atoms from other stuffs to alter its mechanical belongingss. An debasing procedure called solid solution debasing uses a solution to replace bonds inside the metal. The modification of disruption motion is a major factor for debasing because it can be used to beef up metals. Debasing metals with the precipitation hardening makes the strength of the new stuff stronger as the advancement of the procedure is delayed. The ground for precipitation hardening is sought after is because of its abilities in do ing metals stronger. Aluminum metals can hold precipitation in a really specific manner. Heat intervention occurs when one stuff is heated a supersaturated mixture at a specific stage and so two different stages can be present together. A precipitate signifiers in little pieces throughout the full stuff. When the mixture is at its equilibrium, the forming procedure comes to an terminal. The little pieces of precipitate so spread together to organize one big precipitate. This phase of the precipitate tends to weaken the stuffs cardinal construction. The little pieces of precipitate in the stuff make it harder for disruptions to travel. When strength of the stuff diminishes due to the motion of the precipitate it is called overaging. There are two things need for heat interventions to be applied.Figure 11.21 provides a graphical representation the relationship between temperature and composing for aluminium and Cu ( pg 402 ) .The Cu stage represented at a shows a supersaturated solid solution in aluminium while the compound that between the two elements is symbolized as? . Interestingly the point M represents the max solubility point at certain temperature and composing in the stuff. Point N represents the solubility bound of a and ( a + ? ) L symbolizes the temperature needed for the solution to go a liquid. If a major sum of solute is made available in the solution, we would hold a precipitation hardened metal. The bound of the solubility curve immensely decreases in concentration as the temperature decreases. There are two different ways precipitation can happen. One procedure is the usage heat intervention where the solute can be dissolved to organize a solid individual stage solution. This method can be done by heating an metal to a really high temperature.Figure 11.24 shows that the? stage is blended into a stage ( pg 404 ) .Then the metal is cooled where all that is left is a supersaturated a stage. Precipitation heat intervention the ( a + ? ) stage is heated to a specific temperature to let the? stage to precipitate. The metal is cooled and the hardness of the metal is determined by clip. A logarithmic map a comparing with strength and clip proves the dependance of temperature and strength.Kirill Shkolnik105940393 ESG 332 Ã¢â¬â R01 Exam # 2 ( Question # 3 )Describe what is meant by the term Ã¢â¬Å" glass passage temperature Ã¢â¬ and exemplify your reply from polymer and ceramic point of position.Typically a glass passage temperature is where a noncrystalline signifier of a polymer or a ceramic is cooled and transforms from a super cooled liquid into a glass. A ceramic or a glassy stuff is a noncrystalline stuff that becomes progressively more syrupy when it is cooled. Due to the fact that glassy stuffs are noncrystalline there is no definite temperature when the liquid will transform into a solid. Though, it is besides of import to observe that in noncrystalline stuffs the specific volume is dependent on temperature and will diminish with the temperature. The glass passage temperature displays a decrease in the rate at which the particular volume decreases with temperature. When the temperature is below this value, the stuff is in a ceramic from and straight above this point the stuff is considered a superco oled liquid. The glass passage temperature occurs in both glassy and semicrystalline polymers, but non in crystalline stuffs. As certain molecular ironss in noncrystalline stuffs temperature bead due to miss of gesture the glass temperature passage occurs. Basically glass passage is the clip in which a steady transmutation occurs from the liquid province to a somewhat rubberlike province and so to the concluding more stiff solid stuff. The glass passage temperature is the province in which the stuff goes from its rubbery to stiff province. This passage can take topographic point in both waies. As a polymer for illustration is cooled to a stiff solid, it can be heated and undergo the same passage in contrary. As the stuff undergoes all of these alterations its belongingss change from province to province. Some stuffs can see greater alteration include the stiffness, heat capacity, and the coefficient of thermic enlargement for the stuff during this passage. The glass passage temperature besides acts as a bound boundary for applications of polymers and polymer matrix like constituents. If this temperature is beyond the stuff threshold, it will no longer suit the coveted belongingss the undertaking had called for and the application would be useless. The molecules that had been frozen in topographic point below the will both revolve and interpret at the temperatures above. Molecular features have an impact on the concatenation Ã¢â¬Ës stiffness and will in bend affect the glass passage temperature for the stuff. Some molecular features that can do the concatenation Ã¢â¬Ës flexibleness to be reduced and the glass passage temperature to increase that include bulky side groups on the molecular concatenation. Besides these features can impact polar atoms or groups of polar atoms on the side of the molecular concatenation, dual bonds, and aromatic groups. The glass passage temperature will besides increase as the molecular weight of the stuff additions. Branching besides influences the of a stuff, many subdivisions will diminish the ironss mobility and addition, a lower denseness of subdivisions will do the to diminish as the molecular ironss will hold a freer scope of gesture. Crosslinks can happen in glassy polymers and can impact, they cause the decrease of gesture and hence addition. If there are excessively many crosslinks occur in the stuff, the molecular gesture would be so limited that glass passage may non happen. It can be understood that many of the same molecular features which affect the glass passage temperature besides affect the thaw passage temperature. The two are affected in such a similar mode that is normally someplace between 0.5 to 0.8 times the runing passage temperature.Figure 15.19 demonstrates this mathematic relationship ( pg 548 ) .Both ceramic and polymers have a glass passage temperature. A glass can be referred to by several different names ; such as vitreous solid, an formless solid or glassy solid. An formless solid has the mechanical belongingss of a solid, but does non hold long scope molecular order where they are in gesture at a really slow rate that it be considered stiff for regular intents. When glassy stuffs have be en supercooled below the glass passage temperature they will take on features similar to those of a crystalline solid. This solid will go stiff with an increased hardness and will be more brickle. However, if a glassy stuff is heated to above its glass passage temperature it will go softer and many of the intermolecular bonds will interrupt leting the stuff to flux at an increasing fluid viscousness. A polymer below the glass passage temperature is more stiff, but as it enters its glass passage stage, the stuff becomes more rubbery as its viscousness additions. The polymer can come in its glass passage at a lower temperature when critical factors that normally affect the gesture of the molecules in the stuff are non all present. When molecular weight of a polymer additions, the glass passage temperature will besides increase. Many factors that increase the the gum elastic gasket would non make its occupation decently.Polymers can exhibit the undermentioned constructions: formless, semi-crystalline and crystalline. Describe these constructions and explicate how the mechanical belongingss may be influenced by these structural signifiers for a polymer of the same chemical expression.Polymers can develop formless, semi-crystalline and crystalline constructions of the same chemical expression. Polymers can be as liquids, semi solids, or solids related to the crystal constructions severally. However each of these constructions exhibit a assortment of different mechanical belongingss. The crystallinity of a polymer depends on the intermolecular secondary bonding which will to a great extent act upon the extent of any mechanical belongings of the polymer. The tensile strength, elastic modulus and compaction strength of a crystalline construction will be stronger than a semicrystalline construction and significantly stronger than formless type construction. For a crystalline construction the molecular ironss of the polymer are tightly packed together in an organized atomic group which take up infinite and will impact the polymers mechanical belongingss. These crystalline constructions are to a great extent influenced by the glass passage temperature. Besides the isomer and chemical expression lays out important factors that will be really of import in the formation of the bulk stuff construction. From certain big bulky functional groups there becomes an at hand hinderance that will suppress the motion capableness of a molecule. This procedure will increase the energy demand for any stage alteration. The result of this procedure is a greater passage temperature. This new temperature passage will increase the opportunities for the formation of a crystalline construction. The ground for this is and clip span before the stuff becomes a disorganised liquid and requires a longer clip for the molecules to set up themselves decently. When polymers have many subdivisions the weaker the stuff will be, even though crystalline constructions are stronger than less ordered stuffs.Figure 15.18 demonstrates the alteration in these structural provinces when specific volume and temperature are compared ( pg 546 ) .Pure polymers have a really little runing point scopes and bond strength. Doped polymers and polymer metals will by and large hold wider runing point scopes. The procedure of ramific ation will diminish the strength of a polymer, which would continuously diminish the thaw point temperature. Though, the act of ramifying on to a great extent heavy subdivisions will diminish molecule mobility. Besides within this procedure the molecular weight is affected every bit good.Kirill Shkolnik105940393 ESG 332 Ã¢â¬â R01 Exam # 2 ( Question # 4 )How are T-T-T and C-C-T diagrams used to plan heat intervention agendas for field C steels.Time-Temperature-Transformation or T-T-T and uninterrupted chilling transmutation or C-C-T are used for heat intervention agendas for field C steel. T-T-T are normally known as an isothermal transmutation diagrams can demo the alteration of different stages at certain temperatures. C-C-T can be used to cipher percent transmutation against the logarithm map through clip. The usage the isothermal transmutation and uninterrupted chilling transmutation diagrams can be used to develop a heat intervention for field C steels. These diagrams will back up the apprehension of C steels through stage diagrams. When a construction is heat treated, its chilling procedure helps retain its construction. This procedure can be analyzed through T-T-T.Figure 10.13 displays a graphical representation of temperature against clip with a 3rd dimension with the per centum of the steel metal transformed to pearlite ( pg 326 ). The apprehension of a rapid chilling metal sully depends on the apprehension and application of heat intervention. It is understood that isothermal transmutations do non alter in temperature but uninterrupted chilling transmutation diagrams do. C-C-T and T-T-T display the same dimensions but over a larger spectrum of clip and temperature.Figure 10.28 shows different signifiers of steel metals ( pg 338 ) .A stuff that has been cooled to a temperature so mewhat below its eutectoid temperature, and isothermal transmutation is maintained for an drawn-out period of clip, interestingly it can non be depicted on T-T-T diagrams in spheroid signifiers.